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Wars, 1900-1999

Description: Wars, 1995-1999





Wars, 1900-1999


1900 (3)


Arabian War 1900-1925

Asante Uprising 1900

Sahara War 1900


1901 (5)


Aro Expedition 1901-02

Assassination of McKinley 1901

Macedonian Crisis 1901

Moro Resistance: Philippines 1901-13

Waziristan Blockade 1901-02


1902 (4)


Angolan Revolt 1902

First Saudi-Rashidi War 1902-05

Macedonian Insurrection 1902

Venezuelan Blockade 1902


1903 (7)


Franco-Morrocan Clashes 1903

British Expedition: Tibet 1903

Hottentot Uprising 1903-1908

Conquest of the Sokoto Caliphate 1903

Ilinden Preobrazhensko Uprising 1903

Panamanian Secession 1903

Jewish Pogroms: Russia 1903


1904 (6)


Anglo-Ottoman Border Dispute 1904

Black Patch War 1904-9

First Moroccan Crisis 1904-6

National Party: Uruguay 1904

Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905

Yemeni Secession 1904-11


1905 (6)


Russian Revolution 1905

Cameroon Revolt 1905-1907

Cretan Independence 1905

French Congo Uprising 1905

Maji Maji Uprising 1905-7

Ruimvelt Riots in British Guiana 1905


1906 (8)


American Occupation of Cuba 1906-7

The Black Hundreds: Russia 1906-11

Persian Constitutional Revolt 1906-21

Macedonian Communal Violence 1906-7

Nigerian Muslim Uprising 1906

Zulu Uprising in South Africa 1906

The Pig War 1906-9

Guatamalan Invasion of Honduras 1906


1907 (8)


Portuguese Expansion in Angola 1907-10

French Intervention in Morocco 1907

Nicaraguan Invasion of Honduras 1907

Moldavian Uprising 1907

The Iquique Massacre in Chile 1907

Portugese Republican Coup 1907-08

Romanian Peasant Uprising 1907

Second “Mad Mullah” Jihad 1907-20


1908 (5)


Moroccan War 1908-1909

The Bosnian Crisis 1908-9

Honduran Uprising 1908

Persian Civil War 1908-9

Young Turks Revolt 1908


1909 (2)


Nicaraguan Civil War 1909-11

Wadai War 1909-1911


1910 (5)


Albanian Uprising 1910

Bahia Coup 1910

Brazilian Naval Mutiny 1910

Persian Counter-Revolution 1910

Portugese Naval Mutiny 1910


1911 (10)


Albanian Uprising 1911

Colombian-Peruvian Border Dispute 1911

Mexican Civil War 1911-1914

Chinese Republican Revolt 1911

Italo-Turkish War 1911-1912

Honduran Uprising 1911

Mongolian Secession 1911

Russo-Persian War 1911

Second Moroccan Crisis 1911

Franco-Moroccan War 1911-12


1912 (2)


First Balkan War 1912-13

Liberal Rebellion: Nicaragua 1912


1913 (5)


Sun Yat-sen’s Revolt: China 1913

Young Turks Coup 1913

Second Balkan War 1913

Saudi-Ottoman War 1913

VVS Suppression: Madagascar 1913


1914 (7)


Boer Anti-War Uprising 1914

Contestada Rebellion 1914-17

First Italo-Sanusi War 1914-17

Italian Labor Uprising 1914

Mexican Revolt 1914-15

Juares Assassination: France 1914

World War I 1914-18


1915 (3)


Armenian Genocide 1915-17

Anti-Imperial Revolt in China 1915-16

Haitian Revolt 1915


1916 (4)


Basmachi Rebellion in Russia/USSR 1916-31

Irish Easter Rising 1916

Poncho Villa’s Raids 1916-17

Preparedness Day Bombing in America 1916


1917 (8)


Costa Rican Revolution 1917

Cuban Revolt of 1917

Dominican Occupation Revolt 1917-21

February Revolution in Russia 1917

July Days in Russia 1917

Kornilov Revolt in Russia 1917

Bolshevik Revolution in Russia 1917

Estonian Secession 1917


1918 (7)


Russian Civil War 1918-20

Finnish Civil War 1918

Haitian Occupation Revolt 1918

Hungarian Revolution 1918-19

Kiel Mutiny in Germany 1918

Lithuanian Secession 1918-20

The Teschen Dispute 1918-20


1919 (31)


Armenian Rebellion 1919

Turkish War of Independence 1919-23

Spartacist Revolt: Germany 1919

Bavarian Communist Republic 1919

British Yemeni Consolidation 1919-1937

Bulgarian Transport Strike 1919-20

May 4th Movement: China 1919

Chinese Reoccupation: Mongolia 1919

Costa Rican Counterrevolution 1919

D’Annunzio’s War 1919-20

Finish-Soviet Border Dispute 1919-20

French Occupation of Syria 1919-20

Irish War of Independence 1919-21

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 1919

Egyptian Revolution 1919

Milner Mission: Egypt 1919

“Red Terror” in Hungary 1919

Hungarian-Czechoslovakian War 1919

Hungarian-Romanian War 1919

“White Terror” in Hungary 1919

Latvian Secession 1919-20

North Yemeni Consolidation 1919-34

Portugal Monarchists Civil War 1919

Riff War 1919-26

Samil Independence Movement 1919-20

Anglo-Yemeni Border Dispute 1919-34

First Saudi-Sharif War 1919

Soviet-Polish War 1919-20

Assassination of Habibullah Khan 1919

Third Anglo-Afghan War 1919

Masud Insurrection: Waziristan 1919


1920 (8)


Great Iraqi Revolution 1920

Conquest of Asir by the Ikhwan 1920

Second Saudi-Rashdi War 1920-22

Assassination of Britons in Egypt 1920-24

“Red” Invasion of Persia 1920

“White” Occupation of Mongolia 1920

Mexican Civil War 1920

Kapp Putsch: Germany 1920


1921 (11)


Costa Rican-Panamanian Border Clash 1921

Arab-Jewish Rioting in Palestine 1921

Ikhwan Raiding of British Allies 1921-22

Irish Civil War 1921-22

Karl IV’s March Restoration 1921

Karl IV’s October Restoration 1921

Kronstadt Rebellion in the USSR 1921

“Red” Invasion of Mongolia 1921

Reza Khan’s Coup: Persia 1921

Second Greco-Turkish War 1921-22

Zaghlul’s Deportation: Egypt 1921


1922 (4)


Colombian-Peruvian Border 1922

Copacabana Revolt in Brazil 1922

Kurdistan Occupation Revolt 1922

March on Rome 1922


1923 (7)


Barcelona Revolt: Spain 1923

Bulgarian Communist Uprising 1923

Communist Suppression: Japan 1923-9

Second Italo-Sanusi War 1923-31

Memel Insurrection in Lithuania 1923

Occupation of the Ruhr Valley 1923

Beer Hall Putsch in Germany 1923


1924 (6)


Assassination of Matteotti 1924

Chilean Anti-Alessandri Coup 1924

Estonian Communist Coup 1924

Hindu-Muslim Riots 1924

Prestes Column: Brazil 1924-27

Second Saudi-Sharif War 1924


1925 (6)


Chilean Pro-Alessandri Coup 1925

Druse Revolt 1925-27

Kurdish Rebellion in Turkey 1925

Greco-Bulgarian Crisis 1925

May 30th Movement in China 1925-26

Panama City Rent Riot 1925


1926 (5)


Indonesian Revolution 1926-27

March on Lisbon 1926

Northern Expedition in China 1926-28

Polish Military Coup 1926

Conservative Coup in Nicaragua 1926


1927 (8)


Shanghai Massacre in China 1927

Nanchang Uprising in China 1927

Autumn Harvest Uprising 1927

Canton Commune in China 1927

The Chaco Dispute 1927-29

Mexican Catholic Revolt 1927-29

Nicaraguan Civil War 1927-33

First Ikhwan Rebellion 1927-28


1928 (5)


Afghan Civil War 1928-29

Assassination of Zhang Zuolin 1928

Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt 1928-49

Regent’s Coup in Ethiopia 1928

Stalin’s “Revolution From Above” 1928-32


1929 (6)


Arab-Jewish Rioting in Palestine 1929

Escobar’s Rebellion in Mexico 1929

Mongolian Collectivization 1929-32

Second Ikhwan Rebellion 1929-30

Soviet Invasion of Manchuria 1929

Women’s War 1929-30


1930 (9)


Brazilian “Tenentes” Revolt 1930

Cuban Students Agitation 1930

Cuban ABC Terrorism 1930-33

Dominican “Era of Trujillo” 1930

Dervish Rebellion: Turkey 1930

Kurdish Rebellion in Iran 1930

Kurdish Rebellion in Iraq 1930-31

Communist Urban Revolt in China 1930

Yen Bai Uprising in French Indochina 1930-31


1931 (9)


Ecuadoran Military Coup 1931

Gibara Rebellion in Cuba 1931

Greco-Bulgarian Crisis 1931

Republican Revolution in Spain 1931

Irgun Terrorism in Palestine 1931-48

Mao’s Chinese Soviet Republic 1931-35

Manchurian Incident 1931

Hamaguchi Osachi: Assassination 1931

October Incident in Japan 1931


1932 (13)


Albanian Uprising 1932

Seville Revolt in Spain 1932

Chaco War 1932-1935

Ecuadoran Civil War 1932

Letica War 1932-33

Paulist Revolt in Brazil 1932

Peruvian APRA Rebellion 1932

“Bonus Marchers” Intervention 1932

Kurdish Rebellion in Iraq 1932

The Shanghai War 1932

Assassination of Takuma Dan 1932

Assassination of Inukai Tsuyohi 1932

Thai “Promoters” Coup 1932


1933 (10)


Nazi Revolution in Germany 1933

Anarchists in Barcelona: Spain 1933

Cuban Military Rebellion 1933

Cuban Batista Coup 1933

March Revolution: Uruguay 1933

Japanese Invasion of Jehol 1933

Thai Military Coup 1933

Thai Royalist Revolt 1933

Assassination of Nadir Shah 1933

Young Egypt Movement 1933-49


1935 (7)


Albanian Reformist Uprising 1935

Cretan Anti-Royalist Uprising 1935

Greek Coup 1935

Second Italo-Abyssinian War 1935-36

Sakdal Uprising in the Philippines 1935

Brazilian Communist Revolt 1935

Ecuadoran Military Coup 1935


1936 (8)


February 26th Incident in Japan 1936

Kuomintang Mutiny in China 1936

Anglo-Egyptian Treaty Protests 1936

Palestinian Arab Revolt 1936-39

North West Frontier Revolt 1936-37

Rhineland Crisis 1936

Spanish Civil War 1936-39

Mexican Conservative Revolt 1936


1937 (6)


Albanian Reformist Uprising 1937

Austro-German “Anschluss” Crisis 1937-8

Ecuadoran Military Coup 1937

Dominican Massacre of Haitians 1937

Panay Incident in China 1937

Sino-Japanese War 1937-45


1938 (7)


Chilean National Socialist Putsch 1938

Soviet-Japanese Border Clash 1938

Polish-Lithuanian Crisis 1938

Munich Crisis 1938

Danzig Crisis 1938-9

Kristallnacht in Germany 1938

Italo-French Colonial Dispute 1938-9


1939 (7)


Chilean Coup 1939

Peruvian Military Coup 1939

Italian Invasion of Albania 1939

Soviet-Japanese Border War 1939

Japanese Blockade of Tientsin 1939

World War II 1939-45

The Winter War 1939-40


1940 (2)


The Katyn Massacre 1940

Stern Gang in Palestine 1940-48


1941 (2)


Ecuadoran-Peruvian Border War 1941

New 4th Army Incident in China 1941


1942 (1)


Internment of Japanese-Americans 1942-45?


1943 (1)


Italian Anti-Facist Coup 1943


1944 (7)


Nationalist Uprising in Ecuador 1944

Salvadoran Military Revolt 1944

Greek Civil War 1944-49

Guatemalan Teachers Protest 1944

Guatemalan Military Coup 1944

Latvian Partisan War 1944-49

Lithuanian Partisan War 1944-52


1945 (8)


AD Coup in Venezuela 1945

Algerian May Day Demonstration 1945

The Setif Demonstration in Algeria 1945

Chinese Civil War 1945-46

Palestinian Mandate 1945-48

Burmese Rebellion 1945-46

Indonesian Independence 1945-50

Kurdish Mahabad Republic 1945-46


1946 (9)


Bolivian Popular Revolt 1946

Chinese Civil War 1946-49

Haitian Military Coup 1946

Huk Rebellion in the Philippines 1946-54

French Indochina War 1946-54

Korean Occupation Rebellion 1946

Paraguayan Coup 1946

Partition of India 1946-47

Portuguese Military Coup 1946


1947 (9)


Pakistani Annexation of Kalat 1947-48

Indian Annexation of Junagadh 1947

Ecuadoran Military Coup 1947

Kashmir War 1947-49

Madagascar Revolt 1947-48

Paraguayan Civil War 1947

Sino-Mongolian Border Clashes 1947-48

Thai Coup d’Etat Group 1947

Triest Incident 1947-53


1948 (22)


Communist Purge in Albania 1948-9

Deir Yasin Massacre in Palestine 1948

Israeli War of Independence 1948-49

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi 1948

Annexation of Hyderabad 1948

Berlin Blockade 1948-9

Karen Revolt in Burma 1948-Present

The “Bogotazo” in Colombia 1948

The “Violencia” in Colombia 1948-58

Costa Rican Civil War 1948

Calderonista Invasion of Costa Rica 1948

Enmore Shootings in British Guiana 1948

Jamaican Military Coup 1948

Malayan Emergency 1948-60

Paraguayan Military Coup 1948

Peruvian Naval Mutiny 1948

Salvadoran Military Revolt 1948

Sino-Taiwanese War 1948-65

Reformers Coup in North Yemen 1948

Korean Guerrilla War 1948-9

Venezuelan Reactionary Coup 1948

Ysu Rebellion in US Occupied Korea 1948


1949 (4)


Bolivian MNR Coup 1949

Congo War 1949-67

Libyan Revolt 1949-51

Thai Naval Revolt 1949


1950 (10)


Attack on Blair House 1950

Anglo-American Plot: Albania 1950-2

Chinese Communist Terror 1950-58?

Chinese Occupation of Tibet 1950

Delgado Assassination: Venezuela 1950

Indochina War 1950-54

Indonesian Civil War 1950-61

Korean War 1950-53

Nationalist Uprising in Puerto Rico 1950

Nepali Congress Rebellion 1950-51


1951 (6)


Argentine Revolt 1951

Bolivian Military Coup 1951

Bulldozing Incident in Egypt 1951

Thai Naval Revolt 1951

Thai Government Coup 1951

Vice Presidential Coup in Panama 1951


1952 (12)


Buraimi Oasis Dispute 1952-55

Bolivian MNR Revolution 1952

“Enosis” Campaign in Cyprus 1952-59

Egyptian Police Militancy 1952

Free Officers’ Coup in Egypt 1952

Textile Workers’ Strike in Egypt 1952

Tunisian War of Independence 1952-55

“New National Ideal” in Venezuela 1952-54

Maronite Coup in Lebanon 1952

Second Batista Coup in Cuba 1952

Thai Anti-Chinese Campaign 1952-55

Mau Mau War 1952-56


1953 (10)


26th of July Movement in Cuba 1953

Achinese Rebellion in Indonesia 1953-7

British Intervention in Guyana 1953

Colombian Military Coup 1953

East German Uprising 1953

Loatian Rebellion 1953-87

Moroccan Rebellion 1953-55

Druse Uprising in Syria 1953-54

Anglo-American Plot: Iran 1953

Iranian Military Coup 1953


1954 (8)


Algerian Independence 1954-62

Batdambang Massacre 1954

Nagaland Insurgency 1954-Present

Guatemalan Revolution 1954

Paraguayan Coup 1954

Pathet Lao Insurgency 1954-59

Tibetan Uprising 1954

Viet Minh Incursion: Cambodia 1954


1955 (9)


Military Revolt in Buenos Aires 1955

Military Revolt in Argentina 1955

Buddhist Rebellion in South Vietnam 1955

Calderonista Invasion of Costa Rica 1955

Israeli Raid on Gaza 1955

Pakhtunistan Crisis 1955-57

“Black Thursday” in Singapore 1955

Student Rioting in Singapore 1955

Sudanese Civil War 1955-Present


1956 (15)


Assassination of Anastasio Somoza 1956

Nationalization of the Suez Canal 1956

The Sinai War 1956

Cameroon Rebellion 1956-59

Castro’s Revolution in Cuba 1956-59

August Uprising in Honduras 1956

Honduran Military Coup 1956

Hungarian Revolt 1956

Peronist Unrest in Argentina 1956-7

Poznan Rioting in Poland 1956

October Confrontation in Poland 1956

Sino-Burmese War 1956

Tamil-Sinhalese Unrest in Ceylon 1956

Tibetian War 1956-59

Viet Cong Insurgency 1956-65


1957 (7)


Franco-Tunisian Border Clashes 1957

Invasion of Ifni by Moroccan Irregulars 1957-8

Iman’s Revolt in Oman 1957

Syrian War 1957

Tunisian Revolt 1957-62

Turko-Syrian Border Incidents 1957

Warsaw Riot: Poland 1957


1958 (12)


Achinese Rebellion in Indonesia 1958-9

Army Coup in Burma 1958

Colombian Civil War 1958-87

French Officers’ Revolt 1958

Indonesian PRRI Revolt 1958-61

Iraqi Army Revolt 1958

Lebanese Civil War 1958

Paraguayan Exile Insurgency 1958-9

Communal Violence in Ceylon 1958

Sudanese Military Coup 1958

Thai-Cambodian Border Clash 1958

Venezuelan Military Revolt 1958


1959 (10)


Banadaranaike’s Assassination 1959

CPT Insurgency: Thailand 1959-

Rwandan Independence 1959-61

Sieu Heng’s Defection 1959

Guatemalan Rebellion 1959-74

Iraqi Pan-Arab Revolt 1959

Iraqi Antigovernment Rebellion 1959

Paraguayan State of Siege 1959-60

Tibetan Uprising 1959

USR Secession: Maldives 1959-62


1960 (21)


Algerian Colonists’ Revolt 1960

Guatemalan Army Revolt 1960

Greater Somalia Movement 1960-64

Franco-Moroccan Dispute 1960

Indo-Chinese Skirmishing 1960

Israeli Capture of Eichmann 1960

Iraqi Annexation Threat: Kuwait 1960

Katangan Secession: Congo 1960-64

Laotian Military Coup 1960

Army Coup: Congo 1960

Stanleyville Secession: Congo 1960-1

Ethiopia-Somalia: Border Clashes 1960

Imperial Guards’ Coup: Ethiopia 1960

French Army Revolt: Algeria 1960

Salvadoran Military Coup 1960

Sharpeville: South Africa 1960

South Vietnamese Military Revolt 1960

Soviet Plot: Albania 1960

April 19th Students Revolution 1960

Rebel Invasion: Nicaragua 1960

The U-2 Incident 1960


1961 (16)


Angolan War of Independence 1961-74

Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961

Berlin Wall Crisis 1961

Ecuadoran Coup 1961

Eritrean Secession: Ethiopia 1961-93

Guatemalan Civil War 1961-96

Laotian Civil War 1961-62

Nepali Congress Rebellion 1961-62

Nigerian Civil War 1961-74

Pakhtunistan Crisis 1961-63

Sandinista Insurgency 1961-78

South Korean Military Coup 1961

Syrian Revolt 1961-66

Salvadoran Young Officers’ Coup 1961

Yeman War 1961-70

Iraqi Kurd Revolt 1961-63


1962 (15)


Algerian Revolt 1962-65

Argentina’s “Black Year” 1962-3

Burmese Military Coup 1962

Cameroon Rebellion 1962-71

Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

Guatemalan Student Riots 1962

Guinea-Bissau Indepenence 1962-74

Insurrection in Brunei 1962

Pathet Lao Insurgency 1962-75

Dutch New Guinea Guerrillas 1962

Mozambique Independence 1962-75

Rwandan Civil War 1962-63

Sino-Indian War 1962-63

North Yemeni Civil War 1962-70

United Arab Republic Dissolution 1962


1963 (19)


Algerian-Moroccan War 1963-64

British Honduras Crisis 1963

Cypriot Civil War 1963-64

Congolese Military Coup 1963

Ecuadoran Coup 1963

Military Coup: Dahomey 1963

Dominican Embassy Raid: Haiti 1963

Dominican-Haitian Clash 1963

Dominican Military Coup 1963

FLQ Terrorism: Canada 1963-70

Guatemalan Military Coup 1963

Haitian Rebel Invasion 1963

Honduran Military Coup 1963

Indonesia Confronts Malyasia 1963-66

South Vietnamese Military Coup 1963

Syrian Nasserite Coup 1963

Tupamaros Terrorism 1963-73

Togolese Military Coup 1963

Tutsi Massacre: Rwanda 1963


1964 (13)


Brazilian Military Revolt 1964

Dhofar Rebellion: Oman 1964-75

Maly-Chinese Violence: Singapore 1964

Panama: Anti-American Rioting 1964

Thailand War 1964-87

VP Coup: Bolivia 1964

Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1964

PRP Rebels: Congo (Zaire) 1964-97

Gbenye’s Insurrection: Congo 1964

Rann of Kutch Dispute 1964-5

Syrian Urban Unrest 1964

Tanganyikan Army Mutiny 1964

Zanzibar’s Revolution 1964


1965 (13)


Bolivian Workers’ Uprising 1965

Chadian Civil War 1965-90

Mobutu Coup: Congo 1965

Dominican Civil War 1965

Indonesian PKI Purge 1965

Muslim Brotherhood: Syria 1965-85

Nigerian Electoral Dispute 1965-66

First Burundian Republic 1965-66

Thai Rebellion 1965-87

Vietnam War 1965-75

Military Coup: South Vietnam 1965

Second Kashmir War 1965

South Yemeni Independence 1965-67


1966 (9)


Black Panthers in America 1966-73

Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966-69

Central African Republic Coup 1966

Military Coup: Ghana 1966

ELN Insurgency: Colombia 1966-Present

Namibian Independence 1966-88

Nigerian Ethnic Violence 1966

Nigerian Coup 1966

N. Korean Infiltration Campaign 1966-71


1967 (13)


Algerian-Moroccan Border Clash 1967

Biafran Secession 1967-70

Cambodian Tax Revolt 1967-70

Catavi-Siglo Massacre: Bolivia 1967

ELN Insurgency: Bolivia 1967

Cypriot Crisis 1967

Katanga Revolt: Congo 1967

Exiles Invasion: Congo 1967

Colonels Coup: Greece 1967

Honduran-Salvadoran Tension 1967

Officials’ Plot: Egypt 1967

Sierra Leone 1967-71

Six Day War 1967


1968 (17)


Basque Terrorism: Spain 1968-

FARC Insurgency: Colombia 1968-

Prague Spring 1968

Dhofar Revolt 1968-74

Malaysian Rebellion 1968-87

Northern Ireland Sectarianism: 1968-94

Panamanian Military Coup 1968

Pueblo Incident 1968

Iraqi Kurd Uprising 1968-70

Sentencing Demonstrations: Egypt 1968

Reform Demonstrations: Egypt 1968

Israeli Raid on Beirut 1968

Peruvian Military Coup 1968

Mali Military Coup 1968

NLF Insurgency: Muscat & Oman 1968

Yemeni Civil War 1968-9

Baath Party Coup: Iraq 1968


1969 (14)


Panamanian January Coup 1969

Panamanian December Coup 1969

Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1969

Sudanese Military Coup 1969

Libyan Military Coup 1969

Shatt al Arab Dispute 1969-71

Palestinian-Lebanese Hostility 1969

Christian-Shia Violence: Beirut 1969-70

Free Papau Movement 1969-Present

FLQ Crisis: Canada 1969

Guyanan Rebellion of 1969

Sanwi Secession 1969

The Soccer War 1969

War of Attrition 1969-70


1970 (11)


Baader-Meinhof Gang/RAF 1970-92

Bete Rebellion 1970

Cambodian Civil War 1970-75

Black September: Jordan 1970-71

Lebanese-Palestinian Clashes 1970

NPA Rebellion: Philippines 1970-99

Polish Revolt 1970

Syrian Military Coup 1970

Iranian Plot: Iraq 1970

Syrian Sponsored Terrorism 1970-86

Trinidadian Rebellion 1970


1971 (10)


Bangladesh Independence 1971

Bolivian Rightist Revolt 1971

Corrective Revolution: Egypt 1971

Lebanese-Palestinian Violence 1971

PLF Uprising: Ceylon 1971

Monima Revolt: Madagascar 1971

Moroccan Rebellion 1971-73

Rhodesian Civil War 1971-79

Thai Government Coup 1971

Amin’s Coup: Ugandan 1971


1972 (9)


British Honduras Crisis 1972

Burundian Genocide 1972

Ecuadoran Military Coup 1972

Lithuanian Students Revolt 1972

M-19 Terrorism: Colombia 1972-91

Moro Rebellion 1972-86

North-South Yemen War 1972

Salvadoran Military Youth Coup 1972

Student Unrest: Madagascar 1972


1973 (11)


Afghan Military Coup 1973

Balochistan Insurgency 1973-77

Chilean Coup 1973-75

Greek Military Coup 1973

Jumma Insurgency: Bangladesh 1973-97

Israeli Raid on Beirut 1973

Lebanese-Palestinian Clashes 1973

Rwandan Coup 1973

Syrian Constitutional Violence 1973

Thai Students & Workers Revolt 1973

Yom Kippur War 1973


1974 (7)


Iraqi Kurd Uprising 1974-75

Madagascar Coup 1974

N. Korean Infiltration Campaign 1974-82

AFM Coup: Portugual 1974

Turkish Invasion: Cyprus 1974

Ethiopian Civil War 1974-91

Malian-Upper Voltan War 1974-75


1975 (22)


Angolan Civil War 1975-91

Assassination of Ratsimandrava 1975

Belize Crisis 1975

Cambodian Refugees: Thailand 1975-95

Khmer Raids: Thailand 1975-9

Kampuchean Killing Fields 1975-9

Lebanese Civil War 1975-76

Libyan RCC Coup 1975

Mayaguez Incident: Cambodia 1975

Rightist Coup: Portugal 1975

Leftist Coup: Portugal 1975

Nigerian Military Coup 1975

Pathet Lao Occupation 1975

Panama Canal Negotiation Crisis 1975

Renamo Insurgency 1975-92

South African Rebellion 1975-87

Saharan War 1975-91

San Salvador Demonstration 1975

Syrian Revolt 1975-82

Occupation of East Timor 1975-89

Ogaden War 1975-78

UNF Coup: Comoros 1975


1976 (8)


Argentina’s “Dirty War” 1976-83

Israeli Raid on Entebbe 1976

Second Burundian Republic 1976

South African Language Rioting 1976

Thammasat Massacre: Thailand 1976

Thai Naval Coup 1976

Nigerian Coup 1976

Peace Village Incident 1976


1977 (12)


Hmong Guerrilla War: Loas 1977-92

Bengali Military Coup 1977

Jumblat’s Assassination 1977

FRG Commando Raid: Somalia 1977

Comoran Massacre: Madagascar 1977

Coal Miners Strike: Romania 1977

Cost-of-Living Strike: Colombia 1977

“Infitah” Rioting: Egypt 1977

Libyan-Egyptian War 1977

Pakistani Army Coup 1977

Panama Canal Treaty Ratification 1977

Salvadoran Electoral Protest 1977


1978 (15)


Iranian Revolution 1979-89

Afghan Marxist Coup 1978

Dominican Electoral Intervention 1978

Drug War: Colombia 1978-

Israeli Invasion of Lebanon 1978

Jonestown, Guyana 1978

Majeerteen Coup: Somalia 1978

SSDF Insurgency: Somalia 1978-86

Mercenary Coup: Comoros 1978

Red Brigades Terrorism: Italy 1978-

Sandinista Revolution: Nicaragua 1978-9

Uganadan-Tanzanian War 1978-79

Kampuchean Intervention 1978-91

Student Riots: Madagascar 1978

Zaire Rebellion 1978-87


1979 (17)


US Ambassador: Afghanistan 1979

Amin’s Coup: Afghanistan 1979

Dacko’s Revolt: CAR 1979

Soviet Occupation: Afghanistan 1979-88

Military Youth Coup: El Salvador: 1979

Grenadan Military Coup 1979

Iran Hostage Crisis 1979-81

Libyan Invasion of Chad 1979

Y.H. Incident: South Korea 1979

Park’s Assassination: South Korea 1979

Second Kurdistan Movement 1979-95

Military Coup in Ghana 1979

Sino-Vietnamese War 1979

Bakalori Protests in Nigeria 1979-80

Ugandan Rebellion 1979-87

North-South Yemen War 1979

Vietnamese Raids: Thailand 1979-88


1980 (21)


Catalan Terrorism: Spain 1980-

Liberian Coup 1980

Libyan Army Revolt 1980

Salvadoran Civil War 1980-92

Spanish Embassy: Guatemala 1980

Student Protests in South Korea 1980

Kwangju Uprising: South Korea 1980

Honduran Rebellion 1980-87

Iran-Iraq War 1980-90

Maldivian Coup 1980

Mozambique Rebellion 1980-87

Military Coup: Guinea-Bissau 1980

Nigerian Maitatsine Rioting 1980-82

Rwandan Coup 1980

Shining Path Rebellion 1980-99

Solidarity Movement: Poland 1980-81

Surinamese Military Coup 1980

Thai-Loation Patrol Boat Incident 1980

Turkish Military Coup 1980

West Nile Terror: Uganda 1980-5

Zimbabwe Rebellion 1980-87


1981 (14)


Ecuador-Peru Border War 1981

Contra Insurgency: Nicaragua 1981-90

Comoran Coup 1981

Honduran Leftist Insurgency 1981-90

Assassination of Sadat: Egypt 1981

Israeli Reactor Raid: Iraq 1981

Libyan Invasion of Chad 1981

Libyan Airspace Incident 1981

Marshal Law in Poland 1981-83

Mercenary Coup: Seychelles 1981

Military Coup in Bangladesh 1981

Military Coup in Ghana 1981

Spanish Military Coup 1981

War in the Bush: Uganda 1981-6


1982 (13)


Ethiopian-Somalian Border Clash 1982

Falkland Islands War 1982

Guatemalan Military Coup 1982

Islamic Repression: Algeria 1982

Israeli Invasion of Lebanon 1982

Military Coup: Bangladesh 1982

Military Coup: CAR 1982

N. Korean Assassination Plot 1982

SNM Insurgency: Somalia 1982-88

Hindu-Muslim Violence: India 1982

Sikh Separatism: India 1982

Surinamese Unrest 1982

Thai Drug War 1982


1983 (13)


Aquino’s Assassination 1983

GAL Terrorism: Spain 1983-

Guatemalan Military Coup 1983

Invasion of Grenada 1983

Maldivian Coup 1983

Military Coup: Upper Volta 1983

Nigerian Coup 1883

PLO Terror 1983-87

Rangoon Bombing 1983

Said Ali Kemal’s Plot: Comoros 1983

Shooting Down of KAL 007: 1983?

Tamil Insurgency 1983-Present

Sudanese Revolt 1983-87


1984 (7)


Cameroonian Revolt 1984

Golden Temple Massacre 1984

Indira Gandhi Assasination 1984?

Kanak Rebels: New Caladonia 1984-5

Sindhi-Muhajir Conflict 1984-92

Thai-Laotion Border Clash 1984

Turk Assimilation: Bulgaria 1984-5


1985 (9)


Agacher Strip War 1985

Comoran Military Revolt 1985

Haitian Revolution 1985-86

Israeli Raid: PLO Headquarters 1985

Nigerian Coup 1985

Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior 1985?

Sudanese Military Coup 1985

Thai Military Coup 1985

Ugandan Military Coup 1985


1986 (7)


Ugandan Civil War 1986-95

American Raid on Libya 1986

Nigerian Student Protests 1986

Philippine Revolution 1986

South Yemeni Civil War 1986

Surinamese Revolt 1986-89

Nicaraguan Incursions: Honduras 1986-7


1987 (12)


Battle at the Grand Mosque 1987

Brasov Protest: Romania 1987

Burkina Faso Rebellion 1987

Fijian Military Coup 1987

GP Violence: Comoros 1987

National Civic Crusade: Panama 1987

Student Agitation: South Korea 1987

Bombing of KAL 858 1987

Barracks Uprising: Argentina 1987

Stark Incident 1987

Third Burundian Republic 1987

Thai-Laotion Border Clash 1987-88


1988 (15)


Algerian Antigovernment Rioting 1988

Armenian-Azerbaijani War 1988-94

Bougainville Revolt 1988-98

Burundian Pogrom 1988

Burmese Spring 1988

Haitian June Coup 1988

Haitian September Coup 1988

Kanak Separatism: New Caladonia 1988

Kashmiri Insurgency: India 1988-

Lockerbie Incident 1988

Mercenary Coup: Maldives 1988

Palestinian “Intifada” 1988

Panamanian Military Coup 1988

Strait of Hormuz Incident 1988

Venezuelan Fishermen Massacre 1988


1989 (19)


Babri Masjid Destruction 1989-93

Casamance Secession 1989-91

Denard’s Coup: Comoros 1989

Election Fraud: Madagascar 1989

Georgian April Tragedy 1989

SPM Insurgency: Somalia 1989-90

USC Insurgency: Somalia 1989-90

Romanian Revolution 1989

Liberian Civil War 1989-95

Libyan Fighters Incident 1989

Namibian Transition Crisis 1989

Panamanian Military Coup 1989

Paraguayan Military Revolt 1989

Philippine Military Revolt 1989

Senegal-Mauritania Border War 1989-91

Tiananmen Square Massacre 1989

US Invasion of Panama 1989

Venezuelan Food Riots 1989

Collapse of the Berlin War 1989-90?


1990 (19)


ANC-Inkatha Violence 1990-94

Mass Demonstrations: Albania 1990

Student Protests in Albania 1990

Mercenary Uprising: Comoros 1990

Democracy Protests: Nepal 1990

Tuareg Separatism: Mali 1990-96

Nigeria: Jukun-Tiv Violence 1990-92

Osh Riots: Kyrgyzstan 1990

Transylvanian Violence: Romania 1990

Tuareg Separatism: Niger 1990-5

Persian Gulf War 1990-91*

Philippine Army Rebellion 1990

Somalian Revolution 1990-91

South Ossetian Rebellion 1990-92

Surinamese Revolt 1990-92

Syrian-Phalangist Coup: Lebanon 1990*

Trinidadian Rebellion 1990

Tutsi Insurgency: Rwanda 1990-91

Walvis Bay Dispute 1990-4


1991 (17)


August Coup: USSR 1991

Croatian Secession 1991-95*

Djibouti Civil War 1991-4

Honduran Peasant Massacre 1991

Kurdish Revolt in Iraq & Turkey 1991-

Palace Massacre: Madagascar 1991

Shi’ite Rebellion: Iraq 1991

Slovenian Secession 1991*

Sierra Leonean Civil War 1991-6

Somalian Civil War 1991-93

Soviet Intervention: Latvia 1991*

Thai Military Coup 1991

Togolese Civil War 1991-2

Tontons Macoutes Revolt: Haiti 1991

Moldovan Civil War 1991-92

Neo-Duvalierists Revolt: Haiti 1991-94

Georgian Civil War 1991


1992 (17)


Abkhazian Rebellion 1992-93

Algerian Civil War 1992-

Angolan Civil War 1992-

Bosnian Civil War 1992-95*

Bangkok Massacre: Thailand 1992

Comoran Military Coup 1992

February Coup: Chad 1992

May Coup: Chad 1992

Hindu-Muslim Riots 1992

Khmer Rouge Insurgency 1992-8

Nigeria: Kataf-Hausa Violence 1992

Military Coup: Sierra Leone 1992

Dushanbe Demonstration 1992

Tajikistani Civil War 1992-4

Mahore’s Anti-Comoran Violence 1992

Venezuelan February Coup 1992

Venezuelan November Coup 1992


1993 (4)


Burundian Civil War 1993-4

Georgian Civil War 1993-94

Russian Communist Revolt 1993

Somalian Clan Warfare 1993-


1994 (5)


Bajaur Insurgency 1994

Chechen Revolt: Russia 1994-6

Chiapas Rebellion: Mexico 1994

Ghana - Ethnic Violence 1994-5

Rwandan Genocide 1994*


1995 (5)


Ecuador-Peru Border War 1995*

Ghana - Tribal Violence 1995

Hutu Infiltration: Burundi 1995

Zapatista Suppression 1995

LRA Insurgency: Uganda 1995-


1996 (8)


Burundian Hutu Rebellion 1996-

Burundian Military Coup 1996

Colombian Peasant Uprising 1996

North Korean Infiltration Campaign 1996*

Liberian Civil War 1996-7

Military Coup: Sierra Leone 1996

EPR Revolt Mexico 1996

Northern Ireland Sectarianism 1996


1997 (5)


Albanian Rebellion 1997

Anjouan & Moheli Secession 1997

Cambodian Civil War 1997

Sierra Leonean Mutiny 1997

ECOWAS Intervention: 1997-8*


1998 (5)


Ethiopian-Eritrean Border War 1998*>>

Kosovo Uprising 1998-9*

Northern Ireland Sectarianism 1998

RUF Resistance: Sierra Leone 1998-*

Tutsi Rebellion: Congo 1998-


1999 (1)


Ethiopian-Eritrean Border War 1999-*


* cross-border




Description: Wars, 1995-1999


Ethiopian-Eritrean Border War 1999-Present


Both landlocked Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea (on the Red Sea), feuding over currency and trade issues, laid claim to a 150-square mile border region known as Badame in northern Ethiopia. There on May 6, 1998, fighting erupted between Eritrean and Ethiopian troops, and within a month both sides were exchanging artillery and tank fire. Eritrean aircraft bombed the northern Ethiopian towns of Adigrat and Mekele, while ground troops clashed on three fronts (one close to the Red Sea). Ethiopia retaliated with air strikes on Eritrea’s capital, Asmara. By late June 1998, the intense fighting had killed hundreds of people (many were civilians), and diplomatic peace efforts by the United States and Rwanda floundered; both sides finally accepted a proposal to halt air raids, but in October 1998, they were moving men and arms to the border. In February 1999, serious fighting resumed, involving artillery, tanks, ground troops, and warplanes, over the claims of both countries to Badame; both sides suffered heavy losses, with Ethiopia claiming “significant victories,” which Eritrea disclaimed.




Tutsi Rebellion in the Congo 1998-Present


On August 3, 1998, in the easternmost part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), rebellious Tutsi-led troops seized control of Goma and Bukavu, announcing their intention to topple the government of Congolese president Laurent Kabila (1940-), who was accused of tribalism, power-grabbing, mismanagment, and extravagant living. Kabila had evidently discriminated against the Congo’s Tutsi minority, known collectively as the Banyamulenge and closely tied to neighboring Rwanda. Mainly consisting of Tutsis, Rwandan soldiers, and disenchanted Congolese, the rebels opened up battlefronts in both the east and west, capturing Kisangani and the Congo River port of Matadi respectively in mid-August. Rwanda’s Minister of Defense Paul Kagame (1957?-) appeared to back the rebellion in the eastern Congo, with the hope perhaps to redraw the borders there to protect his Tutsi brothers. Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe (1924-) deployed troops to help Kabila fight off rebels advancing on the Congo’s capital, Kinshasa. Angolan troops soon crossed into the Congo in support of Kabila’s loyalist forces. The war threatened to engulf other African states, and chances of a negotiated settlement grew dim. In early 1999, in retaliation against attacks by Kabila’s allies, rebels terrorized and slaughtered many civilians in eastern villages.




RUF Resistance in Sierra Leone 1998-Present


Resistance came from the interior Kono district, where RUF rebels began killing and pillaging in April 1998; thousands of persons fled to Guinea to escape the rebels, who killed more than 3,000 persons in an attack on Freetown (February 1999) as they attempted to free a rebel leader. Nigeria said its troops would remain in Sierra Leone for now (March 1999).




Real IRA Bombing in Northern Ireland 1998


[H]ard-liners opposed to the peace attempted to undo it through church bombings and other violent acts, notably a car bomb in Omagh that killed 28 people and wounded over 330 (August 15, 1998). Strong public revulsion against the so-called Real IRA, which claimed responsibility for the Omagh attack, forced it and other Irish republican groups to suspend violent campaigns. Northern Ireland’s major Protestant and Catholic parties clashed over different interpretations of the peace agreement in December 1998, while the outlawed IRA was refusing to disarm.




Kosovo Uprising 1998-1999


Sporadic fighting between ethnic Albanian guerrillas and Serbian police in the Serbian province of Kosovo in southern Yugoslavia escalated to a high-profile conflict in early March 1998 when Serbian police and paramilitary forces began blasting ethnic Albanian villages in the area surrounding the capital, Pristina, killing dozens of defenseless residents. Fearing the possibility of another full-scale Balkan war, the “Contact Group” (consisting of the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia) set up to monitor adherence to the Dayton Accords of 1995, which ended the Bosnian Civil War of 1992-95, imposed an arms embargo on Yugoslavia on May 9. Alone among Contact Group members, the US favored harsher penalties against the Serbs; in the meantime it was discovered that the Russians had agreed to sell arms to Yugoslavia the previous December, in violation of the Dayton Accords. The province of Kosovo, 90% of whose 2 million inhabitants are ethnic Albanians, had been stripped in 1989 of its autonomous status within the republic of Serbia by then-president of Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic (1941-) in reaction to the province’s demand for independence. In the following years a movement of peaceful civil resistance among the Kosovars (ethnic Albanians in Kosovo) led by moderate Ibrahim Rugova (1944-) had achieved a certain degree of success by boycotting Serbian administrative institutions. Rather than compromise by offering Kosovo the status of an autonomous republic within the state of Yugoslavia — the status of Serbia and Montenegro — Milosevic, who subsequently became president of Yugoslavia, persisted in a policy of police rule in Kosovo. The police sweeps of March 1998, an action diplomats considered a foolish move, merely served to galvanize resistance among the vast Albanian majority. As Serbian forces continued to shell villages, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which began as a small band of poorly equipped men but quickly swelled with volunteers and arms supplied by Albania, gained control of 40% of the province. In early June, Milosevic stepped up his campaign of flushing the Kosovars from their homes, causing thousands of refugees to flee for their lives to Albania. Meanwhile US efforts to help settle the conflict failed, and Contact Group members continued to disagree about sanctions. In August 1998, a Serbian offensive drove KLA rebels from their strongholds, and fighting centered on escape routes into Albania, where Kosovars maintained sanctuaries; both sides reviewed a blueprint for peace negotiations. Serbian terrorism against villagers brought UN condemnation. Clashes between Serbian security forces and rebels (as well as civilians) resulted in about 50 killings in December 1998, adding urgency to efforts by the Contact Group members to negotiate a permanent peace. The warring sides sent delegations to peace talks in Rambouillet, France, in February 1999. Serb forces continued attacks on Kosovo Albanians, while Belgrade fortified its border with Macedonia (the likely staging area for any NATO peacekeeping force). US envoy Richard C. A. Holbrooke (1941-), architect of the Dayton Accords, unsuccessfully tried to persuade Milosevic to sign onto a US-sponsored peace plan (March 10, 1999), and NATO began a strategic bombing campaign on March 24. More than 2,000 people have died and 300,000 have been displace since the fighting began.




Ethiopian-Eritrean Border War 1998


Both landlocked Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea (on the Red Sea), feuding over currency and trade issues, laid claim to a 150-square mile border region known as Badame in northern Ethiopia. There on May 6, 1998, fighting erupted between Eritrean and Ethiopian troops, and within a month both sides were exchanging artillery and tank fire. Eritrean aircraft bombed the northern Ethiopian towns of Adigrat and Mekele, while ground troops clashed on three fronts (one close to the Red Sea). Ethiopia retaliated with air strikes on Eritrea’s capital, Asmara. By late June 1998, the intense fighting had killed hundreds of people (many were civilians), and diplomatic peace efforts by the United States and Rwanda floundered; both sides finally accepted a proposal to halt air raids, but in October 1998, they were moving men and arms to the border. In February 1999, serious fighting resumed, involving artillery, tanks, ground troops, and warplanes, over the claims of both countries to Badame; both sides suffered heavy losses, with Ethiopia claiming “significant victories,” which Eritrea disclaimed.




Multinational Intervention in Sierra Leone 1997-1998


Nigeria sent naval ships and troops to try to restore Kabbah, who had fled the country. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) applied sanctions in an effort to force Sierra Leone to restore democracy. In February 1998, Nigerian forces bombarded and seized Freetown, sending the ruling junta leaders in flight to Liberia. Kabbah returned a month later when a coalition of West African peacekeepers (largely Nigerian troops) had calmed much of the country.




Mutiny in Sierra Leone 1997


Kabbah was ousted in May 1997 when mutinous troops attacked and fought peacekeeping Nigerian troops stationed in Freetown, Sierra Leone’s capital, to defend the government against rebel militias. A military junta led by Major Johny Paul Koroma took control of the country, which was plunged into violence and anarchy.




Cambodian Civil War 1997


Tensions increased in the unstable coalition government between rival co-prime ministers, Hun Sen (1950-) and Prince Norodom Ranariddh (son of Sihanouk). These warlords tried to boost their strength by enlisting Khmer Rouge rebels as allies. Fighting broke out in Phnom Penh in July 1997; Hun Sen took power, overthrowing Ranariddh, who escaped; Sihanouk (ill with cancer) later left the country.




Anjouan and Moheli Secession: Comoros 1997


In the Indian Ocean between northern Mozambique and Madagascar lie the Comoros, consisting mainly of Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali), three predominantly Muslim islands, which gained independence from France in 1975. Southeast of Anjouan lies Mayotte (Mahore), a largely Christian island that remains under French administration. In July 1997, Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence, calling the Comoran (Comorian) government corrupt and seeking to reestablish ties with France. On September 3, about 300 troops were dispatched from Moroni, the capital on Grande Comore, to regain control of Anjouan, where secessionists put up heavy resistance with the use of foreign mercenaries, artillery, and other material; the troops were withdrawn several days later. Calling the secession “an internal affair,” France declined to intervene; the Organization of African Unity (OAU) sponsored peace talks between the two sides. In late 1997, the Comoro’s president appointed a native of Anjouan as his prime minister.




Albanian Investment Rebellion 1997


Europe’s poorest country, Albania disintegrated into anarchy and armed revolt soon after pyramid investment schemes failed in January 1997. The schemes (actually fronts for laundering money and dealing in weapons) could no longer make payments once the number of investors grew to include the vast majority of Albanians, who had been lured by get-rich-quick promises. Beginning in February thousands of citizens gathered daily, demanding reimbursement by the government, which they suspected of profiting from the schemes. By March 1997, the protests had turned violent in the south, especially around the port city of Vlore (Vlora), where numerous residents armed themselves with weapons looted from army barracks. On March 2 President Sali Berisha (1944-) declared a state of emergency, but rioting and destruction spread throughout the country, gripping the capital, Tirana, for two weeks. Although the government quelled revolts in the north, in mid-March rebels still controlled towns in the south. Fearing the spread of unrest outside Albania’s borders — and alarmed at the third wave of refugees from the country in a decade — the United Nations on March 28 authorized a force of 7,000 to direct relief efforts and to restore order. In elections in June and July 1997, Berisha and his party were voted out of power, and all UN forces left Albania by August 11.




Violence in Northern Ireland 1996-1997


But the cease-fire was broken in February 1996 with a bomb set off in London by the IRA, which objected to certain procedural steps in negotiations then being held as a prelude to formal talks. The worst street fighting since 1968 followed in July 1996 in the town of Portadown, when Protestant Orangemen insisted on conducting a provocative theme march through a Catholic neighborhood. Determined to be part of the peace talks, the IRA reinstated the ceasefire in July 1997, and Sinn Fein (the IRA’s political wing), under the leadership of Gerry Adams (1948-), was admitted to the talks in 1997. Despite revenge killings by splinter groups on both sides in early 1998, the legitimate opposition parties, including Sinn Fein, continued to attend the peace talks. On April 10, 1998, representatives of eight political parties agreed to a landmark document, under which Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland would govern jointly in a 108-seat National Assembly, which would work with the Irish Republic in a newly formed North-South legislative council. This power-sharing peace accord was endorsed by the majority of voters in referendums in the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland on May 22, 1998.




EPR Revolt in Mexico 1996


While trying to conclude an accord with the Zapatistas, the Mexican government under President Ernesto Zedillo (1951-) confronted another armed guerrilla group, the Popular Revolutionary Army (EPR), based in the village of Aguas Blancas in the southwestern Mexican state of Guerrero. The EPR, entirely separate from the Zapatistas, called the Zedillo regime corrupt, illegitimate, and antidemocratic. In August 1996, EPR rebels launched coordinated attacks against government targets in six Mexican states, inciting a large military offensive by Zedillo against them. The guerrillas were forced to retreat into mountain areas and hamlets, where they undertook a propaganda and harassment campaign against the government in 1997. EPR leaders, bolstered by some leftist politicians, called for a newly written constitution for Mexico.




Military Coup in Sierra Leone 1996


Strasser was later ousted in a bloodless military coup, and that same year (1996) Ahmed Tejan Kabbah (1932-) won the presidency in democratic elections, returning Sierra Leone to civilian rule.




Liberian Civil War 1996-1997


A January 1996 peace plan brokered by several African states was ineffectual, and in April 1996 ferocious fighting again erupted in Monrovia among rebels and government troops and West African peacekeeping forces. Charles Taylor then made a tenuous alliance with the republic of Nigeria, and on July 19, 1997, with Nigerian help, free elections were held in Liberia. Taylor won a land-slide victory, and hostilities ended.




North Korean Infiltration Campaign 1996


The food shortages in North Korea that were evident in 1995 worsened in 1996. In some areas of the country they approached famine proportions, with frequent reports of peasants being reduced to eating bark off of trees. With no credit to buy food on the open market, North Korea was dependent on charity.


Yet North Korea did not behave like a supplicant. Instead, the year was marked by some of the most bellicose provocations experienced on the Korean peninsula for years. In April several hundred North Korean soldiers entered the demilitarized zone and unloaded their mortars, recoilless rifles, and machine guns on their side of the joint security area—all in flagrant violation of the 43-year-old armistice agreement that forbids any but side arms in the DMZ. They repeated the demonstration during the following two days. The most likely explanation was that it represented an escalation of North Korea’s campaign to dismantle the armistice machinery and replace it with a separate peace treaty with the parties to the 1950-53 Korean War.


Then in September came another curious event. A small North Korean submarine ran aground off South Korea’s northeastern coastline. It was reportedly carrying about two dozen commandos, most of whom were killed, either by their comrades or by South Korean troops during a massive manhunt. North Korea said that the sub had strayed off course because of engine trouble, but the South Korean Defense Ministry, relying on the interrogation of one captured commando, said that it had been on a reconnaissance mission. Late in December North Korea expressed “deep regret” for the episode.




Peasant Uprising in Colombia 1996


...The Liberal government under Ernesto Samper Pizano (1950-), elected president in 1994, continued to battle the FARC and ELN guerrillas, who supported uprisings (1996) by growers of cocaine in Putumayo and Caqueta provinces (peasant farmers wanted compensation for loss of their drug crops due to the government cocaine eradication program).




Military Coup in Burundi 1996


Later, on July 25, 1996, angered by the government’s solicitation of foreign military intervention to help impose security for planned political discussions, the Burundian army staged a coup, surrounding government buildings in the capital city of Bujumbaura and forcing the moderate Hutu president, Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (1956-), to seek safety in the US ambassador’s residence. The military leaders installed Pierre Buyoya (1949-), a Tutsi, as president.




Hutu Rebellion in Burundi 1996-Present


Turmoil from clashes between rebel Hutu and government Tutsi continued to disrupt Burundi in 1996-97. After government forces replused some 2,000 attacking Hutu rebels near Bujumbura in early 1998, the Organization of African Unity sponsored peace talks (June, July, October 1998), which brought no substantial progress. Rebel attacks led to more Burundian civilians fleeing the country.




LRA Insurgency in Uganda 1995-Present


In 1995... a new Sudan-based guerrilla group, called the Lord’s Resistance Army, began raiding villages in the Acholi district (north). Uganda’s relations grew more strained with neighboring Sudan; both countries had aided various rebels’ attacks on each other’s government in the past. In 1997, Museveni received US arms and military training for his actions with Sudan and the Congo (Zaire). Bold raids by the Lord’s Resistance Army prompted the government to confine all the Acholi people in protected villages in 1998.




Zapatista Suppression in Mexico 1995


But a yearlong truce ended when, in February 1995, soldiers moved into rebel territory in Chiapas, arrested Zapatistas, and chased others into the Lacandon jungle. Chiapas still simmered on the brink of new hostilities.




Hutu Rebels in Burundi 1995


In the summer of 1995 intense fighting broke out in the northwest between Hutu rebels infiltrating the area from refugee camps in Zaire and the still Tutsi-led army.




Konkomba-Nanumba Violence in Ghana 1995


[I]n 1995, hostilities resumed in the north, notably around Tamale. About 100 persons died in fighting between Konkombas and Nanumbas, who had gained an alliance with the Dagomba and Gonja ethnic groups, before the government secured a peace settlement and allocated $1.2 million to aid some 200,000 persons since the [fighting] began.




Ecuadoran-Peruvian Border War 1995


A longstanding territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru erupted in fighting on January 26, 1995, in the remote, rugged jungle mountains of the Cordillera del Condor, where a stretch of border had never been clearly marked and where deposits of gold, uranium, and oil supposedly lay. Peru claimed that the approximately 1,000-mile border between the two countries had been set by the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which had confirmed its victory over Ecuador in a 10-day war in 1941 over territory. But Ecuador declared the protocol null in 1960, before the last 48 miles of the border had been marked. Vowing to enforce Peru’s claim to the 48-mile stretch, President Alberto Fujimori (1938-) sent troops and warplanes into the region (between the Santiago and Zamora rivers); then Ecuador’s president Sixto Duran Ballen (1922-) attempted to negotiate a peace. Each side accused the other of being the aggressor and deployed naval ships along their coasts. Finally a cease-fire and truce took effect on March 1, 1995, after tense peace talks, calling for demilitarization of the disputed jungle border. Peru reported losing several warplanes and almost 50 soldiers; Ecuador’s official toll was about 30 dead and 300 wounded, but the casualties on both sides most likely were greater. On October 26, 1998, the two countries signed a peace treaty defining the 48-mile stretch of border, creating a committee to resolve boundary issues peacefully, and setting down terms for bilateral trade and navigation rights.