[10]    Man: Original Sin

35.    How did Adam sin? What are the consequences of Adamís sin?

a. It is apparent that Adamís Fall was the transgression of a covenant (Hos 6:7). Paul also draws a parallel between Adam and Christ in Ro 5:12-21. In Adam all men died, but in Christ all those who are His are made alive. This means that Adam was the representative head of the human race, just as Christ is now the representative head of all believers who belong to Christ. Theologians call this the covenant of works. It has the following elements:
  (1) The parties: A covenant is always a contract between two parties. In this case, they are God and Adam as the representative of the human race.   (2) The promise: The promise of the covenant was the promise of life without death.

(3) The condition: The condition was that of absolute obedience (Gen 2:16-17). The explicit test of pure obedience positive was the command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

(4) The penalty: death in the widest sense of the word, including physical, spiritual, and eternal death. It consists not only in the separation of body and soul, but more fundamentally in the separation of the soul from God.

  (5) The sacrament: the tree of life appointed as a symbol and seal of life.
b. Adamís sin was the result of temptation by Satan who appeared in the form of a serpent. Adam was free to obey or disobey. He chose disobedience by choice.   c. Aspects of Adamís sin (Gen 3:1-6)
d. Consequences: 36.    What is the meaning of "original sin"? How did we get original sin? c. Actual sin: These include outward acts of sin (ranging from minor acts that hurt others to criminal acts) and inward acts of sin (such as conscious thoughts, desires, and sinful decisions).   d. Universality of sin: (1Ki 8:46; Ps 143:2; Pr 20:9; Ecc 7:20; Ro 3:1-12,19,23; Gal 3:22; Jas 3:2; 1Jn 1:8,10) e. Every person is born with original sin because each individual is related to Adam. When Adam sinned, the result is that every person becomes a sinner (Ro 5:19).   f. There are two different views that explain how Adamís sin is passed onto us.
  (1) Representative Theory or Federal Headship Theory: Adam stood in a twofold relation to his descendant: he was their natural head, and he was their representative as the head of the covenant. When he sinned as their representative, this sin was also imputed to them, and as a result they are all born in a corrupt state. (What Adam did is charged to his descendants.)   (2) Substantive Theory or Natural Headship Theory: Adam was the organic whole of humanity. The whole human race is derived from natural generation. Natural generation is the process which passes human nature from the ancestor to the descendants. At the time of the Fall, the human nature of Adam was polluted with sin. This fallen human nature with guilt and pollution is passed from Adam to every person who comes from Adam. (What Adam was is transmitted to his descendants.)  
37.    How did God provide a way of salvation from the consequences of original sin? a. Because of the failure of the covenant of works and the entry of original sin into the world, man is destined to suffer the consequences of sin: eternal death.   b. God provided a way of avoiding eternal death with a new covenant of grace (Jer 31:33; Heb 8:10) -- salvation through faith. This covenant was provided after the Fall.
  (1) The parties: God and sinner who has faith in Christ   (2) The promise: to become Godís children (Jer 31:33; 32:38-40; Eze 34:23-25,30-31; 36:25-28; Heb 8:10; 2Co 6:16-18) including promise of temporal blessings, of justification, of the Spirit of God, and of final glorification in an eternal life (Job 19:25-27; Ps 16:11; Isa 43:25; Jer 31:33-34; Eze 36:27; Dan 12:2-3; Gal 4:4-6; Titus 3:7; Heb 11:7; Jas 2:5)   (3) The requirement:
  (a) the sinner is to accept the covenant and the related promises by faith, (Heb 11:6)   (b) from the principle of the new life born within him/her, the sinner consecrates the life to God in a new obedience (Dt 7:9; 2Ch 6:14; Ps 25:10,14; 103:17-18).
(4) Characteristics: similar for all times and for all human
(5) Content of faith different in various dispensations (periods of time in salvation history):