E. Evangelicalism

1.    Fundamentalism [no compromise on Biblical truth]

2.    Conservative theology [preserve traditional doctrines]
3.    Evangelicalism [spreading the good news of the changeless Bible]
4.    Dispensationalism [God's different treatments to different times]
a.    Main points b.    Evaluation: most doctrines well founded in the Bible but over-insistence on non-fundamental doctrines such as millennium, partition of the Bible into parts for the Jews and parts for the church, neglecting problems in the world (isolationism, or ghetto mentality), causing unnecessary division among evangelicals
5.    Charismatic movement [manifestation of charismatic gifts]
6.    Contemporary situation [internal battles]
a.    Separatist fundamentalists -- non-compromise attitude; separate from Christians with slightly different beliefs; absolute inerrancy of the Bible; dispensationalism; pre-millenianism; war against morally deteriorating society, such as demonstrations

b.    Open fundamentalists -- similar beliefs as above but non-confrontational; emphasis on education; not involved in social justice; including Moody Bible Institute, Dallas Theological Seminary, Talbot Theological Seminary

c.    Established evangelicals -- concentrate on evangelism, defend historicity and authority of the Bible against liberal theology, avoid confrontations with other evangelicals, stress Christian's role in social justice; including Fuller Theological Seminary, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Asbury Theological Seminary, Billy Graham, Campus Crusade

d.    New evangelicals -- same beliefs as above, emphasize new way to present Biblical truths, oppose to dispensationalism, tolerance to different schools of eschatology, some harmonization with science (such as progressive creationism), criticize Fundamentalism for its separatist attitude and non-involvement with the society

e.    Catholic evangelicals -- maintain continuity with the tradition of the whole church, thus hoping for an evangelical-Catholic unity but emphasing that the Bible has priority over tradition

f.    Evaluation: Evangelicalism is closest to orthodox Christianity, all groups emphasize evangelism; sometimes elevating marginal matters of faith into essentials thus resulting in unnecessary division based on differences in non-fundamental doctrines because of intolerance; intense rivalry to the point of neglecting the more dangerous enemies of modernism, heretical beliefs and cults; should learn to "agree to disagree"

7.    Past evangelical theologians
a.    Finney [promoting revival] b.    Hodge [great systematic theologian since the Reformation] c.    Warfield [the infallible Bible]
8.    Present evangelical theologians
a.    Stott [defender of evangelical faith and a total gospel] b.    Schaeffer [philosophical apologete] c.    Berkouwer [the humanity of the Bible] d.    Thielicke [preaching to the modern people] e.    Bruce [evangelical exegete] f.    Henry [revelation as truth] g.    Ramm [action from evangelical heritage] h.    Chang Lit-Sang [repelling humanism] i.    Philip Teng [Christianity without excesses] j.    Evaluation: all based on the authority of the Bible as the Word of God; affirm the centrality and cruciality of Christ's work of redemption; use intellect and reasoning to explain the revelation of God and to defend the gospel; emphasize the importance of Christian living; present the gospel to the world in modern terms yet not compromising the truth
F. Conclusion

1.    Orthodox Christianity

a.    Main doctrines that differentiate orthodoxy: authority of the Bible based on objective revelation and inerrancy, virginal birth of Jesus, deity of Jesus, death of substitutionary atonement, bodily resurrection, bodily second coming.

b.    Other indication of modernism: disbelieve authenticity of the Bible, Pentateuch not written by Moses but much later, evolutionary theory of the Hebrew religion, most OT books written much later than commonly held, NT epistles not written by Paul, lack of truth in the gospels, believe in Darwinian social evolution.

c.    Recommended textbooks for systematic theology: Charles Hodge, Louis Berkhof, Oliver Buswell, Millard Erickson, Donald Bloesch

2.    Future direction
Directions of Evangelicalism (adapted from Paul Szeto and Denny Ma):
(1)    Biblical-evangelical or Bible-oriented: believing in the inspiration of the Bible and relying on the authority of the Bible

(2)    Spiritual-evangelical: need for spiritual growth

(3)    Historical-evangelical: gospel as historical reality

(4)    Practical-evangelical or balance-oriented: Christian witness, balance in knowledge and living

(5)    Intellectual-evangelical or intellectuals-oriented: understand what we believe, encourage theological and apologetic research, support theological education

(6)    Cultural-evangelical or culture-oriented: transform culture, advocate the superiority of gospel over culture

(7)    Social-evangelical or welfare-oriented: relevant to society, participate in social welfare

(8)    Christian literature-oriented: encourage and participate in the work of Christian literature

(9)    Ecumenism-oriented: encourage cooperation between different denominations

(10)  Church-oriented: participate in church activities

3.    Coping with the confusion
a.    Weapon in the spiritual warefare:
firm foundation in the Bible, the Word of God, the sword of the Holy Spirit (Eph 6:17)
b.    General principle:
  c.    Use of this study: