Era 3: Medieval Church (1): Expansion & Conflicts (AD 600–1000)




26/    The New Order

The Barbarian Kingdoms—Benedictine Monasticism—The Papacy—The Arab Conquests

·         What were the main features of Benedictine monasticism? Should today’s Christians learn to practice them?

·         What were the factors that lead to the development (centralization of power) of the papacy? How much influence was exerted by Leo the Great and Gregory the Great?

·         What were the theological inventions of Gregory I?

·         What were the effects of the Islamic expansion on Christianity?

27/    Eastern Christianity

The Christological Debates to the Council of Chalcedon—Further Theological Debates—The Dissident Churches of the East—Eastern Orthodoxy after the Arab Conquests

·         The first two ecumenical councils dealt with the theology of trinity. What is the main theological issue in the next three ecumenical councils? How did the Eastern and the Western churches react to them?

·         How did political intervention contribute to schism? What were the remote and proximate causes of the East-West schism in 1054?

·         How was eastern Europe converted?

28/    Imperial Restoration and Continuing Decay

Charlemagne's Reign—Theological Activity—New Invasions—Decay in the Papacy

·         What were the theological controversies in the 9th and 10th centuries?

·         What were the factors that led to the corruption of the papacy?

29/    Movements of Renewal

Monastic Reform—Papal Reform—The Papacy and the Empire in Direct Confrontation

·         What were the 4 main aspects of monastic reform?

·         What were the emphases in papal reform? What led to its failure?

·         What were the results of the conflicts between the ecclesiastic and civil authorities (popes vs Germanic emperors)?