DOWNLOAD  (MS-Word document)




Six Steps or Material Elements
in the Formation of Ethical Judgments



陶特著(H.E. Tödt孔祥烱譯



Definition of the Problem

[1] 問題的訂立

A clarification of what it is that requires a moral decision is the first task. Here reflection must center on how the one making the judgment is affected by the “matter” at issue, how he or she is involved in it, on the sources of the problem, what needs and interests it touches, and to what extent problems are at stake that require more than merely “technical” solutions inasmuch as they challenge his or her own ethical judgment.


Analysis of the Situation

[2] 處境的分析

This involves an investigation of the “real context” in which the problem arises (for instance, the social and political framework, the relationships to personal or group life and action), in order to determine how the definition and solution of the respective problem is conditioned by this context. Problems arise for human beings out of their complex world and within it; “the situation” comes into being through the delimitation within a complex environment of “my” situation, or “our” situation, on the part of the individual or several or even many interacting subjects. Even so-called “inward” problems arise within an inward environment that is in many ways intertwined with outward environments. The result of this analysis is a situational schema.


Behavioral Options

[3] 行動的選擇

The usual reaction to a problem or problematic situation is always: What is to be done? As behavioral options and their foreseeable consequences are considered, the question arises (with the conscience exercising a control function here, by raising the question of the identity or integrity of the subject or subjects), whether a behavioral stance would be a “good” or “right” one. Here norms come into play.


Testing the Norms

[4] 規範的考查

We must survey and choose among the ethically relevant criteria of decision. The human life-world (Lebenswelt) is intertwined with a multiplicity of norms, many of which have assumed a relative life of their own. In the course of making a judgment, the norms that are utilized are to be understood in terms of their objective function: a norm is whatever links a situation or situational schema to an act or mode of behavior by a judgment. Moral are those norms which intend to let this linkage take place in a morally defensible manner; that is, which maintain the integrity of the subject.


The Judgment as Decision

[5] 判斷成為抉擇

The judgment is a synthetic act made with a view to the problem presented, on the basis of the cognition of the facts of the situation, the possible behavioral options, and the applicable norms. It implies an active self-determination: “I make up my mind (“Ich entscheide mich ...”) to do such and such.”


Retrospective Adequacy Control

[6] 回顧過程之足夠性

Judgmental decisions are often made in a tentative and preliminary manner. Ethical decisions, in particular, are often reconsidered, sometimes again and again. It might be considered, for instance, whether the decision really meets the problem as defined, whether it constitutes a “solution,” whether the steps are strictly linked to one another and to the whole course of the decision-making process, whether new factors now present themselves which had not been considered previously, etc.






DOWNLOAD  (MS-Word document)



SOURCE: H.E. Tödt, tr. Walter Bense (1994), “Towards a theory of making ethical judgments,” in Readings in Christian ethics, ed. David K. Clark and Robert V. Rakestraw (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker), volume 1, 292-293.




Definition of the Problem.. 1

[1] 問題的訂立... 1

Analysis of the Situation. 1

[2] 處境的分析... 1

Behavioral Options. 2

[3] 行動的選擇... 2

Testing the Norms. 2

[4] 規範的考查... 2

The Judgment as Decision. 3

[5] 判斷成為抉擇... 3

Retrospective Adequacy Control 3

[6] 回顧過程之足夠性... 3