G1. Creeds: authority (Question 67)
|Model||Coetus Electorum (Latin: company of the elected): transcendent||Corpus Christi (Latin: body of Christ): historical-objective||Communio Sanctorum (Latin: communion of the faithful): spiritual-subjective|
|Historical expression||Evangelical: revivalism, pietism||Liturgical: Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican, catholic orthodoxy||Liberal: "mainline" Protestantism, political theology|
|Focus of common life||Conversion: discipline of the regenerate life, religion of the heart||Sacramental life: unity of apostolic teaching, religion of the book||Social action: relevant service in the world, religion of the people|
|Key values & achievements||Vatality: inner life||Authority: correct doctrine||Solidarity: social change|
|Teaching concentration||New birth: the individual, personal regeneration||Authoritative doctrine and catechetics: the eternal, apostolic authority||Reconciling base communities: the social, social action|
|Church & society correlation||Christ against culture||Christ of or above culture||Christ transforming culture|
|Heterodox tendency||Gnosticism||Neoplatonic idealism||Pelagian pragmatism|
|Focus of human predicament||Sin||Heresy||Injustice|
(2) Prayer is fellowship with God and a way to show our love and devotion to Him; it is also a means by which our love for God can be strengthened.
(3) Prayer is a means by which we learn to be grateful, remembering that everything comes from God.
(4) Prayer is a means by which we can relieve our burdens before God.
(5) Prayer is a way through which
God allows His children to be involved in activities that are eternally
c. Proper attitudes in prayer:
(2) Pray with faith and real confidence of answer (Heb 11:1; Mk 11:24; Mt 21:22; Jas 1:6)
(3) Pray continually over time (Gen 32:26; Lk 6:12; Mk 14:39; Mt 18:1-8)
(4) Pray earnestly (Heb 5:17; Amos 7:2)
(5) Wait on the Lord (Ps 27:14;
38:15; 130:5-6): to have heart and mind in the right mood for talking with
God, to rise to a level of purity worthy of God; to concentrate all thoughts
and feelings; to be free from all earthly worries and affections before
tha majestic God.
(2) Thanksgiving for Godís blessings (Col 4:2)
(3) Confession of own sins (Mt 6:12; 1Jn 1:9; Jas 5:16)
(4) Petition for self and for others
(2) We do not know how to pray as we ought (Ro 8:26).
(3) We do not pray according to Godís will (Jas 4:3).
(4) We do not ask in faith (Jas 1:6-8).
(5) God has a better plan (2Co 12:8-9).
(2) Johnís baptism: It is one of repentance (Mt 3:2,6; Ac 19:4), and cleansing of sin (Jn 3:25-26). The mode is unknown but most likely following the OT tradition of sprinkling. The term "much water" (Jn 3:23) should be translated "many waters" meaning many springs.
(3) Jesus did not prescribe a certain mode of baptism, and the Bible never stresses any particular mode.
(4) Greek words: The word baptizo employed by Jesus does not necessarily mean "to immerse" but may also mean "to purify by washing". The word baptisma can mean immersion, pouring, or sprinkling. It is probable that some NT usage can mean immersion, but in no instance is this certain. On the other hand, some OT and NT usage of the word clearly refer to sprinkling and washing (Lev 14:16, Mk 7:1-7).
(5) NT baptisms: There is not a single case of baptism mentioned in the NT of which we are sure that it was baptism by immersion. However, there are many examples in which immersion was unlikely, such as the 3000 baptised on Pentecost (Ac 2:41; too many people) and the baptism of Paul (Ac 9:18; 22:16; Paul was extremely weak).
(6) In sacraments, the mode is always subordinate to the symbolism. To follow the symbol of purification, sprinkling or pouring are more proper (Lev 14:7; Nu 8:7; Heb 9:19-22; 10:22). To follow the symbol of burial with Christ, immersion is more proper. To follow the symbol of entry into the church, sprinkling is more proper.
(7) Baptists hold strongly that the proper mode of baptism is by immersion because they believe that baptism symbolizes burial and resurrection. They even assert that baptism in any other way is not baptism at all. This interpretation of the Bible is inaccurate.
(8) History: Immersion was more prevalent (not exclusive) in post-apostolic times; sprinkling is more prevalent now.
(9) Visual effects: Immersion is more vivid and spectacular and may result greater impact on the person baptized, but definitely not more holy.
(b) The covenant made with Abraham was primarily a spiritual covenant, though it also had a national aspect (Ro 4:16-18; Gal 3:8-9,14). The covenant is still in force and is essentially the same as the new covenant (Ro 4:13-18; Gal 3:15-18; Heb 6:13-18). Children share in the blessings of the covenant, received the sign of circumcision, and were reckoned as part of the congregation of Israel (2Ch 20:13; Joel 2:16).
(c) In the NT, baptism is substituted for circumcision as the sign and seal of entrance into the covenant, (Ac 2:39; Col 2:11-12). The new covenant is represented in Scripture as more gracious than the old (Isa 54:13; Jer 31:34; Heb 8:11), and therefore would hardly exclude children. The inclusion of children is supported by Mt 19:14; Ac 2:39; 1Co 7:14.
(d) In addition, whole households were baptized and it is unlikely that all of them contained no children (Ac 16:15,33; 1Co 1:16).
(2) Objection to infant baptism:
(b) There is no command to baptize children in NT.
(c) NT does not record any clear
occurrence of infant baptism.
(4) Some churches which oppose infant baptism use the substitute of infant dedication which serves a similar function. This is equivalent to infant baptism without water.
(2) "breaking of the bread" (Ac 2:42,46; 20:7,11)
(3) holy communion (1Co 10:16)
(4) "eucharist" from Gr. eucharisteo meaning to give thanks or to be grateful; from the giving of thanks at the Last Supper (Mk 14:22; Mt 26:27; 1Co 10:16; 11:24)
(5) thanksgiving, or mass (Latin
missa: sending, dismissal, blessing)
(2) perpetual sign of and renewal
of covenant sealed with sacrificial blood ["blood of the covenant" (1Co
11:25) come from Ex 24:8 where blood was sprinkled over the people to ratify
the covenant]; similarly, the Lordís Supper is a sign of the new covenant
(salvation by faith) sealed with the blood of the Lamb of God (1Co 5:7)
(2) believersí participation in the crucified Christ
(3) unity (oneness) of the believers as we share the one body of Christ
(4) representation of the effects
of spiritual eating and drinking as giving life, strength, and joy to the
(2) Present: we are of one body with brothers and sisters and should love them: our Love; we were in the bondage of sin but now we are in the bond of love
(3) Future: we partake the Lordís Supper until Jesusí second coming (1Co 11:26): our Hope; we joyfully look forward to sharing the feast in heaven with all our brothers and sisters, including those who already died