35. How did Adam sin?
What are the consequences of Adamís sin?
a. It is apparent that Adamís
Fall was the transgression of a covenant (Hos 6:7). Paul also draws
a parallel between Adam and Christ in Ro 5:12-21. In Adam all men died,
but in Christ all those who are His are made alive. This means that Adam
was the representative head of the human race, just as Christ is now the
representative head of all believers who belong to Christ. Theologians
call this the covenant of works. It has the following elements:
(1) The parties: A covenant is
always a contract between two parties. In this case, they are God and Adam
as the representative of the human race.
(2) The promise: The promise of the
covenant was the promise of life without death.
(3) The condition: The condition
was that of absolute obedience (Gen 2:16-17). The explicit test of pure
obedience positive was the command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge
of good and evil.
(4) The penalty: death in the widest
sense of the word, including physical, spiritual, and eternal death. It
consists not only in the separation of body and soul, but more fundamentally
in the separation of the soul from God.
(5) The sacrament: the tree of life
appointed as a symbol and seal of life.
b. Adamís sin was the result of temptation
by Satan who appeared in the form of a serpent. Adam was free to obey or
disobey. He chose disobedience by choice.
c. Aspects of Adamís sin (Gen 3:1-6)
intellectually: unbelief (doubting
Godís command) and pride
will: desire to be like God
affections: unholy satisfaction of
eating the forbidden fruit
forfeit the original righteousness,
conscious of guilt, feeling of shame
forfeit the right of free communion
physical death of the body
spiritual death of the soul (eternal
separation from God)
total depravity of humanity (original
driven from Paradise
e. All men are guilty in Adam,
and are therefore born with original sin.
36. What is
the meaning of "original sin"? How did we get original sin?
a. Original sin: all men
are born in a sinful state and condition which is the root of all
the actual sins committed. (Jer 17:9; Jn 15:4-5; Ro 7:18,23-24; 8:7-8;
1Co 2:14; Eph 2:1-3; 4:18; 2Ti 3:2-4; Titus 1:15; Heb 11:6)
b. Elements of original sin:
c. Actual sin: These include
outward acts of sin (ranging from minor acts that hurt others to criminal
acts) and inward acts of sin (such as conscious thoughts, desires, and
d. Universality of sin: (1Ki
8:46; Ps 143:2; Pr 20:9; Ecc 7:20; Ro 3:1-12,19,23; Gal 3:22; Jas
3:2; 1Jn 1:8,10)
hereditary tendency or positive
disposition toward sin (Gen 8:21; Ps 51:5)
total depravity of man: irreversible,
sin and corruption invaded every part of humanity (including body, thoughts,
moral consciousness) so that man cannot save himself
resulted from Adamís sin (1Co 15:22;
transmitted at birth (Job 14:1,4)
root of all actual sins
sense of guilt, feeling responsible
for the sinful tendency and the actual sins
e. Every person is born with original
sin because each individual is related to Adam. When Adam sinned, the result
is that every person becomes a sinner (Ro 5:19).
f. There are two different views that
explain how Adamís sin is passed onto us.
No one can avoid being born in sin.
Man is sinful from birth; it is not
the result of imitation (Job 14:4; Ps 51:5).
Even children are sinful and need redemption
in Jesus Christ (Ro 5:12-14; Eph 2:3).
(1) Representative Theory
or Federal Headship Theory: Adam stood in a twofold relation to his descendant:
he was their natural head, and he was their representative as the head
of the covenant. When he sinned as their representative, this sin was also
imputed to them, and as a result they are all born in a corrupt state.
(What Adam did is charged to his descendants.)
(2) Substantive Theory or Natural
Headship Theory: Adam was the organic whole of humanity. The whole human
race is derived from natural generation. Natural generation is the process
which passes human nature from the ancestor to the descendants. At the
time of the Fall, the human nature of Adam was polluted with sin. This
fallen human nature with guilt and pollution is passed from Adam to every
person who comes from Adam. (What Adam was is transmitted to his descendants.)
37. How did
God provide a way of salvation from the consequences of original sin?
a. Because of the failure of the
covenant of works and the entry of original sin into the world, man is
destined to suffer the consequences of sin: eternal death.
b. God provided a way of avoiding eternal
death with a new covenant of grace (Jer 31:33; Heb 8:10) -- salvation
through faith. This covenant was provided after the Fall.
(1) The parties: God and sinner
who has faith in Christ
(2) The promise: to become Godís children
(Jer 31:33; 32:38-40; Eze 34:23-25,30-31; 36:25-28; Heb 8:10; 2Co
6:16-18) including promise of temporal blessings, of justification, of
the Spirit of God, and of final glorification in an eternal life (Job 19:25-27;
Ps 16:11; Isa 43:25; Jer 31:33-34; Eze 36:27; Dan 12:2-3; Gal 4:4-6;
Titus 3:7; Heb 11:7; Jas 2:5)
(3) The requirement:
(a) the sinner is to accept the
covenant and the related promises by faith, (Heb 11:6)
(b) from the principle of the new life
born within him/her, the sinner consecrates the life to God in a new obedience
(Dt 7:9; 2Ch 6:14; Ps 25:10,14; 103:17-18).
(4) Characteristics: similar for all
times and for all human
(5) Content of faith different
in various dispensations (periods of time in salvation history):
same principle: not based on any work
or merits of man but on the grace of God
same basis of salvation: death of Christ
(Jn 6:44) who acts as the Mediator (Heb 9:15)
same promise (Gen 17:7; Heb 8:10)
same gospel (Gal 3:8)
same requirement: faith in God (Gal
3:6-7), response in accordance with the revelation of God
revelation to Adam (Gen 3:15)
covenant with Noah (Gen 9:1-17; see
6:8,22): requiring faith in God
covenant with Abraham (Gen 15; see
15:6): requiring faith in God; circumcision as the seal
covenant with Israel at Sinai (Gen
24): requiring faith in God and keeping the law and sacrifices; Passover
as the sacrament
new covenant (Jer 31:31; Heb 8:8,13):
universal Ė for everyone, requiring faith in Jesus; baptism and eucharist
(the Lordís Supper) as the sacraments (these correspond to the circumcision
and the Passover meal practised by Israel in the OT)