ERA 6 <<
Reference: Gonzalez, volume 2, chapters 24-27
† 19.1.1 Religion in the American colonies
diversity: When the English settlement of
In the north, Puritanism had greater impact. Plymouth Plantation, a community
based on Puritan principles, was founded in
It became the state religion of
· Baptists: Two groups of Baptists were formed:  Arminian General Baptists—those who held that Jesus had died for all mankind.  Calvinist Particular Baptists—those who held that Jesus died only for those who were predestined to be saved.
· Native Indians: Around 1642, there were efforts to evangelize the Indians. An Indian chief called King Philip decided to end this effort  and to stop the white men’s encroachment of their lands. The “King Philip’s War” was started and the Indians were eventually defeated.
† 19.1.2 Education in the colonies
· Universities: The Reformation had led to an emphasis in education because of the belief that the individual Christian could read and interpret his Bible. Many early American universities, including most of Ivy League Schools, were therefore founded by Protestants. They included Harvard College —to secure a literate ministry that could pass on the cultural and religious tradition, William and Mary College  in Williamsburg—to breed good ministers, Yale College —by the Puritans to give youth a liberal and religious education in order to supply the church with leaders, College of New Jersey (later became Princeton) —to educate youth for ministry, King’s College (later became Columbia) , Rhode Island College (later became Brown) —by the Baptists to teach religion and the sciences, Dartmouth College .
† 19.1.3 American Revolution
There was a convergence of new political ideas based on rationalism and the
economic power of the bourgeoisie. Riches were based on agriculture, trade, and
industry. The interests of this new economic aristocracy conflicted with those
of the old hereditary aristocracy. In the
Because of the relative independence of the American colonists, the British
government found it more difficult to exercise authority overseas. So it began
to seek more direct rule. Open conflict between the colonists and the British
government was precipitated by 3 factors: 
The British quartered 17 regiments in the colonies. These were seen as an
instrument of repression.  The
British government decreed a series of taxes without being approved by a
representative assembly.  There
were conflicts over Indian lands and the British government decreed that there
would be no more white occupation of areas beyond the
British troops fired on a crowd in
† 19.1.4 Religion in the new nation
· Against dogmatism: Many joined the struggle for independence to a rationalist ideology that spoke of providence as a principle of progress. The progress was to leave behind the dogmatic attitude of traditional Christianity, and espouse only “natural religion” or, at best, “essential Christianity”.
· Pseudo-religion: Two pseudo-religious movements were institutionalized:  unitarianism,  universalism.
· Unitarianism: Some people from the Anglican and Congregationalist circles were no longer willing to subscribe to traditional orthodoxy. They called the movement “Unitarian” because they rejected the doctrine of Trinity and subscribed to the unity of God and the humanity of Christ. They were rationalists, stressing human freedom, goodness of man, salvation by character culture, and intellectual capabilities, in contrast to the orthodox emphasis on divine mystery and human sin. They denied the divine inspiration of the Bible, and the eternal punishment of hell.
Socinianism: The forerunners of the
Unitarians were the Socinians developed during the Reformation. Their leader
was Italian Lelio Sozzini (Socinus, 1525–1562) who was an anti-Trinitarian
(against Trinity). He believed that Christ is to be worshipped as a man who
obtained divinity by his superior life. The group later moved to
Establishment: Theophilus Lindsey
submitted a petition  signed by 250 clergymen asking the British
Parliament to relieve them from subscribing to the Thirty-Nine Articles. When they were rejected, they established a
Growth: Unitarians grew during the Second
Great Awakening. William Channing preached in
· Universalism: Some people believed that everyone will be saved in the end. They originally came from some British Methodists who argued that the doctrine of eternal damnation was a denial of God’s love.
(1741-1815), the father of organized Universalism, believed that Christ had
made full payment for all men and that at the judgment all unbelief in God’s
mercy would vanish and immediate blessedness would begin for all. Universalist
churches were first organized in
o Elhanan Winchester (1751–1797) asserted that all would be saved by ultimate “free” submission to God. However, unrepentant men would be purified by protracted, not eternal, suffering.
o Hosea Ballou (1771–1852) asserted that Christ’s atonement was moral; that is, it was not intended as a legal payment for sin but merely as a demonstration of God’s love to draw men unto Him. He believed men would be punished for sin, here or hereafter, until they turned from it.
o Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882) was the leader of transcendentalism which seeks an ideal spiritual state that transcends the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual’s intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions. He stressed self-knowledge as a means to understand the universe and its purpose.
o Eventually, Universalists merged with the Unitarians .
church: Because of the war, Anglicans in the
· Denominationalism: The word “denomination” describes one of the main characteristics of the Christianity resulting from the North American experience. Various churches are seen from the view of different names given to them. North American Protestants tended to think of the universal church as an invisible reality consisting of all true believers, and of the visible churches or “denominations” as voluntary organizations that believers create and join according to their conviction and preferences.
· Disciples of Christ —This was founded as a response against denominationalism. It was also called the Restoration Movement, led by Alexander Campbell (1788-1866) and Barton Stone (1772-1844). Their purpose was to call all Protestants to unity through the proclamation of the gospel in its original purity. Yet, eventually, they formed a new denomination called the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).
† 19.2.1 First Great Awakening [1730s–1740s]
Under the influence of pietism, many early American colonists felt that a pious
personal religious experience was of great important for Christian life. The
Great Awakening was a revival with large number of conversions. It started with
the preaching of Theodore Frelinghuysen to the Dutch Reformed Church in
Edwards (1703–1758)—He was a Calvinist pastor in
preaching: George Whitefield visited
· Danger of revivalism: Revivalism included the dangers of being misled by a superficial emotionalism. Edwards realized that not all of the conversions during the revival were genuine. Some of those who professed conversion soon lapsed into their old godless ways. That is why Edwards maintained that true religion lies not in the mind but in the affections (the heart, emotions, will). “There never was anything considerable brought to pass in the heart or life of any man living, by the things of religion, that had not his heard deeply affected by those things.”
· Impact: This was the first movement that embraced the 13 colonies. It brought a sense of commonality. At the same time, new ideas were circulating regarding human rights and the nature of the government. This would contribute to the later revolution for independence.
† 19.2.2 Second Great Awakening [1800s–1830s]
· Background: At the end of 18th-c, the influence of the Great Awakening had been largely dissipated by deism. In universities, few students professed regeneration. Gambling, profanity, vice, and drunkenness were common among students who were proud of being unbelievers.
· Beginning: There was an increase in Christian devotion and living, emphasized by theologians including Timothy Dwight (1752–1817), grandson of Jonathan Edwards and president of Yale, and evangelist Charles Finney (1792–1875). About one-third of the students professed conversion . Revival spread to other eastern colleges and to the western frontier.
Revival meetings: Finney’s new measures of revivalism included protracted meetings,
colloquial language in preaching, unseasonable hours for services, naming
individuals in public prayer and sermons, and the “anxious bench” to which
inquirers could come. He later became the president of
o Belief in free will: Finney stressed the freedom and power of the human will—we are free to obey or disobey God. This stress on free will led Finney to deny the doctrine of the original sin. Instead, he believed that we are all born with physical depravity—with a bias towards self-gratification. But this doctrine, when combined with the certainty of sin with its voluntary character, is basically the same as Augustine’s doctrine of original sin.
· Cane Ridge Revival —In Cane Ridge, Kentucky, a Presbyterian pastor called for a camp meeting, and thousands came. The response to the call to repentance was surprising and overwhelming. It was later expanded. Methodists and Baptists took up the idea of celebrating “camp meetings” leading to periodic “revivals”, particularly in the frontier.
· New societies: There were the founding of several societies whose purpose was to evangelize. The most important were the American Bible Society , the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions , and the American Tract Society .
† 19.2.3 Third Great Awakening [1880s–1900s]
· Revival: After the civil war, the old camp meetings were adapted to the urban environment, leading to revivals. Dwight Moody (1837–1899) and Ira Sankey (1840–1908) preached to the urban masses, calling people to repentance and salvation in Jesus Christ. Moody helped organize the Chicago Evangelization Society  from which Moody Bible Institute was founded .
· Related activities: Societies formed and took up various social causes such as the war against alcohol. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union  later became the foremost defender of women’s rights. Thus, some roots of American feminism can be traced to the Third Great Awakening. (Some historians regarded this as the continuation of the Second Great Awakening.)
· Frontier: Westward migration brought some of those whose faith was kindled. However, since conditions on the frontier were different, the awakening became more emotional and less intellectual.
† 19.3.1 Major events in the French Revolution
Assembly: During the reign of Louis XVI [1774–1792], economic
· Bastille: When the king wanted to dissolve the assembly, the people rioted and took the Bastille on July 14, 1789. The assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen which the king refused to accept.
· The church suppressed: The assembly issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy to reform the church, placing it under French bishops and the French crown. All church land became public property. All monasteries were abolished by law  and bishops were to be elected by voters. Later, the National Convention (the assembly) abolished monarchy and proclaimed the Republic . During the Reign of Terror [1793–1794], many clergies were executed for counter-revolutionary activities.
of Reason: The leaders of the revolution were convinced that a
new era of science and reason would overcome all superstition and religion. A
new deist religion called the “Cult of Reason” (later called “Cult of the
Supreme Being”) was proclaimed.
Bonaparte (1769–1821)—He became First Consul and master of
19.3.2 Changes in
century: The Napoleonic wars had created chaos throughout
Papal States: In 1848, there were widespread revolutions in
Spiritual revival: During 19th-c, renewal was pushed by the “evangelical” wing of
Anglicanism. John Newton (1725–1807), author of the famous hymn “Amazing
Grace”, became their spiritual leader. Charles Simeon (1759–1836) was one of
the scholars at
Ritualistic renewal: In addition, the “Anglo-Catholics” started the “Oxford Movement” [1833–1845] which emphasized the
authority of tradition, apostolic succession, and communion as the centre of
Christian worship. They upheld the spiritual nature of the church and its
freedom from control by the state. They stressed on the importance of colourful
ritual in the liturgy. One of its leader John Henry Newman
(1801–1890) eventually was converted to Catholicism . He was joined by
over 600 important individuals in the next 20 years. The movement led also to
the rebirth of monasticism within the Anglican Church, and restored the
Modernistic invasion: The
revivals: There were revivals in
Plymouth Brethren : The church was organized by John Darby
o Catholic Apostolic Church : It was organized by the followers of Edward Irving (1792–1834), who emphasized the gifts of the Holy Spirit similar to the apostolic era. The church stressed speaking in tongues and the imminent return of Christ.
Charles Spurgeon (1834–1892): He became
o Keswick Movement : The Keswick Higher Life meetings were large scale revival meetings. The preaching emphasized the experience of instantaneous and progressive sanctification that would enable one to defeat sin and live victoriously. These meetings still continue today.
† 19.4.1 US: slavery & the Civil War
viewpoint: The issue of slavery had troubled the conscience of
many Christians. Many denominations in the
· North vs south: The abolition movement was stronger in the north. But the economic system in the south relied on slave labour. The American Anti-Slavery Society was formed . The split between the north and the south results in splits in the Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches (such as the founding of the Southern Baptist Convention).
problems: After the war, many blacks moved into the cities to
find work. Continuous immigration also brought increases in the urban
population. They lived in overcrowded and difficult conditions and they also
lacked contact with organized Christianity. Several organizations formed to
serve the urban masses including the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)
for the poor: In
The industrial revolution benefitted the middle class and the capitalists,
while undermining both the ancient aristocracy and the poor. With growing
industries and increased trade, cities experienced rapid growth, giving rise to
overcrowded slums, and the poor found themselves living and working in
conditions of misery and exploitation. (Here, Karl Marx witnessed the
conditions of the
· Clapham Sect: It is a group of wealthy individuals under the leadership of John Venn, provided lay leaders in social reform from 1792 to 1813, including Wilberforce. Most of the social reforms between 1787 and 1850 were results of evangelical effort for the poor.
· Caring for the poor: The rebirth of monasticism in the Anglican Church led many Anglican monks and nuns to work for the needs of the poor and the ill. The growth of the middle class brought an upsurge in the membership of Methodists, Baptists, and Congregationalists. They founded many societies to help the needy, to remedy the more blatant social ills, and to take the gospel to outside the church. Robert Raikes (1735–1811) established what became known as the Sunday School Movement  to educate children of the poor.
· Labour & prison reforms: The support and inspiration of Methodists, Quakers, and others were important factors in the birth of labour unions. Lord Shaftesbury (1801–1885) worked to secure child-labour laws [1840, 1842, 1845]. John Howard (1726–1790) and Elizabeth Fry (1780–1845) led the fight for prison reforms.
· Helping urban masses: The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) , founded by George Williams (1821–1905), the YWCA , and the Salvation Army , founded by William Booth (1829–1912) and Catherine Booth (1829–1890), aimed to reach the impoverished and unchurched urban masses.
of slavery: The most significant accomplishment of British
Christians was the abolition of slavery. The effort of abolition was led by
William Wilberforce (1759–1833) and other Christians. In 1806 and 1811, the
British Parliament issued laws forbidding the slave trade. In 1815, the English
delegates to the Congress of Vienna brought the outlawing of the slave trade by
most European states. Freedom was decreed for slaves in the
Historians often attribute to the absence of revolution in
† 19.5.1 Internal struggles
In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America, there had been
long-term tension between those recently arrived from
Economic progress produced similar conditions as those in
clergy: In the church, the bishops were named by the governments
· Comte’s theory: In the second half of 19th-c, liberals adopted the positivist philosophy of Comte and became more anti-Catholic. Auguste Comte (1798–1857), a French philosopher and one of the founders of modern sociology, was convinced that society should be reorganized following the dictates of reason. He believed that man has gone through 3 stages of development:  the theological,  the metaphysical, and  the scientific or “positive”. Therefore society must be radically reorganized on the basis of “scientific” or “positive” principles. The new society will make a clear distinction between spiritual authority and temporal power. Temporal power should be given to capitalists and merchants who best understand the needs of society. Spiritual authority should be given to a new “catholic church” without a supernatural God and devoted to the “religion of humanity”. This caused the renewed conflict between liberals and the church.
of Protestantism: New immigrants from Europe and
 treasure our heritage
Denominationalism has its necessary and proper functions of accommodating people with different convictions and preferences.
 appreciate God’s providence
The American awakenings demonstrated the continuing work of the Holy Spirit.
 avoid past errors
Beware of 18th-c heresies of unitarianism and universalism.
 apply our knowledge
Social reforms can improve the society as Christians should, but they can act as witness bringing the good news to the lost.
 follow past saints
We should ask God to raise up people like Jonathan Edwards, Timothy Dwight, and Dwight Moody to bring revivals to the church. But we need to be open to God’s calling.
● Those who were against the Great Awakening accused it of undermining the solemnity of worship, and substituting emotions for study and devotion. Was there any truth in these criticisms? Was the movement really too superficial?
o There was some truth in the criticisms. However, there were also many long lasting conversions. One cannot judge by appearance only.
o There is a need to balance emotions with right doctrine and rational worship.
● Was the movement a deliberate and intended effort? What were the objectives of the movement?
o No, it was an unplanned movement, showing the work of the Holy Spirit.
o The movement aimed at greater devotion and conscientious study of the Bible.
● What impacts of the Great Awakening can be seen today?
o revival meetings, massive crusades like those held by Billy Graham
o Pentecostal worships
● Was the rise of different denominations God’s plan?
o Denominations were organized according to differences in doctrinal convictions and administrative or practical preferences (such as worship and fellowship).
o In contrast, the Roman Catholic Church stresses uniformity. However, some Catholics who do not subscribe to the official position in doctrines simply ignore the church. The results of this include: decline of church authority and respect because of open disobedience (such as the anti-life politicians publicly taking communion administered by Pope Benedict XVI who insisted that communion should not be given to pro-choice politicians, in April 2008), accusation of being hypocrites, deterioration of church discipline.
o Therefore, the rise of denominations suited to this present age of freedom and independence in beliefs. As different Christians may have different beliefs in non-essential matters of faith, the existence of denominations allows every Christian to worship in a church that he fully obeys and agrees with.
● What events triggered the revival movement?
o preaching of Edwards and Whitefield, 1730s
Cane Ridge Revival,
o camp meetings of Methodists and Baptists in the western frontier
o Moody’s preaching, 1872
● What initiatives did the Protestant church get involved in during the time of social upheaval in the 19th-c?
o reach and help the poor and ignorant
o promote labour unions to protect workers
o prison reform
o legislation to reduce child labour
o build schools, hospitals, homeless shelters
o abolition of slavery
● Comte theorizes that humanity has gone through 3 stages of development: theological, metaphysical, and scientific. What does this theory imply about the church?
o The implication is that religion is only for primitive man, not for modern man in an age of rapid progress in every cultural aspects. According to Comte’s theory, religion should be been totally abandoned. Yet, the increase in religiosity in today’s world contradicts the theory and proves it wrong.
What were the effects of large immigration on
the church in
o Many immigrants were Protestants, leading to the granting of religious freedom.
o The Catholic church could not provide sufficient services and instruction for the large immigrant population.
o The majority were nominal Catholics.