ERA 5 <<
Reference: Gonzalez, volume 2, chapters 8,10-11
† 14.1.1 Background
vs Stuarts: In 16th-c,
VIII: Arthur Tudor married Princess Catherine of
· Dispute: Henry wanted to have a legitimate male heir so he asked for an annulment of his marriage from the pope. But Catherine was the aunt of Emperor Charles V so the pope delayed his decision. The king’s advisor Thomas Cranmer consulted Catholic universities which all declared Henry’s marriage not valid.
† 14.1.2 Creation of the Anglican Church
· Resentment: There was a rising tide of national consciousness that supported the separation of the English church from the papacy because of papal ownership of land, papal taxation, and church courts rivalling royal courts. So the creation of the Anglican Church had national support.
Tyndale (1494–1536)—The Biblical humanists began studying the
Bible in the original language. The only English Bible at that time was the
Wycliffe Bible which was distributed by the Lollards, the followers of
Wycliffe. It was not very accurate, having been translated from the Vulgate.
Tyndale decided to translate the Bible from the original languages. He
completed the NT, and Miles Coverdale (1488–1568) translated the OT .
Tyndale was martyred near
· Tyndale’s translation: Most of the English translations of the NT before 20th-c were revisions of the Tyndale’s version. About 90% of the King James Version [KJV, 1611] and 75% of the Revised Standard Version [RSV, 1952] were Tyndale’s words.
Cranmer (1489–1556)—He was appointed archbishop of
Henry VIII first accused the English clergy of violating a statute prohibiting
recognition of any appointee of the pope without the ruler’s consent . He
then fined the clergy and forced them to agree to promulgate no papal bull in
· Act of Supremacy —This was an act passed by the Parliament to limit the authority of the RCC:  forbid the payment of contributions to Rome,  rule that Henry’s marriage was invalid,  make the king the “supreme head of the Church of England”,  decide that anyone who opposed the king was guilty of treason. Thomas More (1478–1535), the chancellor, was one of those who opposed it; he was tried and executed.
o 6 marriages: Henry married 6 times:  Catherine of Aragon who gave birth to Mary Tudor,  Anne Boleyn who gave birth to Elizabeth and who was later condemned to death,  Jane Seymour who gave birth to Edward and died of sickness later,  Anne of Cleves who was later divorced,  Catherine Howard who was later condemned to death,  Catherine Parr who survived Henry.
conflict: A doctrinal statement Ten Articles was published . It leaned slightly to
Lutheranism. The Parliament first closed all smaller monasteries . Later,
the larger monasteries were closed . The Great Bible was issued (revision of Tyndale’s and Coverdale’s work)
, and was placed in every parish church in
· Remaining a Catholic: Henry VIII was not sympathetic to Protestants. Earlier in 1520, his rejection of Luther’s document on the sacramental system had earned him the title of “Defender of the Faith” from the pope. He wavered his support based on political considerations. Later, the Parliament passed the anti-Protestant Six Articles  to restore some Catholic doctrines and practices, such as transubstantiation, communion in one kind, celibacy, and auricular confession. Although some claimed that he became a Protestant on his death-bed, he advocated Catholic ceremony and doctrine throughout his life.
changes: At first, the events were taken only as a schism. But
many wanted to have deeper changes and the Reformation forces in
† 14.1.3 Advance & retreat
VI [1547–1553]—Edward succeeded Henry VIII. He was sickly and
reigned 6 years. The first 3 years was under the regency of Duke of Somerset,
and Reformation in
Mary [1553–1558]—She was Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry’s
first wife. She tried to restore Roman Catholicism in
Elizabeth I [1558–1603]—During her reign, Anglicans returned from
the continent, bringing Zwinglian and Calvinist ideas.
· Thirty-Nine Articles —It was originally written by Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley (Bishop of London) in 1553, as the doctrinal foundation for the Anglican Church. It was Calvinistic in tone, especially in predestination and the communion. But the retention of bishops, liturgy, and other forms of Catholic ceremony was in line with Lutheran policy. The articles sought to achieve a “via media” (middle way between the errors of the RCC and the Anabaptists) in which all but Roman Catholics could participate.
with the pope: The pope excommunicated
· Question of loyalty: Later, the Catholics were ready to distinguish between their religious obedience to the pope from their political and civil loyalty to the queen. They were then allowed to practice their religion openly.
· High & low church: The uncertainty of its Protestant origins has left its mark in the Anglican Church. The church is internally divided into high church and low church. The high church includes those who emphasize the ritualistic aspects similar to the Roman Catholic Mass. The later Oxford Movement came from the high church. The low church includes those who emphasize the Protestant nature of Anglicanism, as represented by the evangelical churches.
† 14.2.1 Political changes
Long before this time, the ideas of Wycliffe (the Lollards) and Huss (the
Hussites) had found followers in
James V died  and Mary Stuart was the heir to the throne. The Anglophiles
(supporters of closer union with
A group of Protestants took the
† 14.2.2 John Knox & the Reformed Church
life: John Knox (1510–1572) was ordained a priest before 1540. He
was appointed preacher of the Protestant community at St. Andrew’s. When
When Mary became queen of
struggle: Mary Stuart married the heir to the French throne
; he became king Francis II  but died one year later . When
Mary Tudor died , Mary Stuart laid claim to the throne of
of Mary Stuart: Knox had disputes with the lords when he tried to
use the riches of the church to establish a system of universal education, and
to lighten the load of the poor. The lords wanted to possess the riches for
themselves. So they invited Mary Stuart to return to
of Mary Stuart: Mary Stuart pursued the throne of
† 14.3.1 A different route to Reformation
of the monarchs: In
· Related to the Bible: It is notable that most countries came under the influence of the Reformation after the publication of the Bible in their vernacular languages.
† 14.4.1 Reformation through bloodbaths
· Background: At the Reformation, the low countries (Seventeen Provinces) were ruled by Emperor Charles V. There were 3 separate linguistic regions: French in the south, Dutch in the north, and Flemish in the centre.
· Reformation: The low countries had been a fertile ground for Protestantism, with influx of Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anabaptists. Charles V issued numerous edicts against Protestants and thousands died.
Philip II, son of Charles V, became king of the region . Then, he became
· William “the Silent”, Prince of Orange (1533–1584)—He was one of the Dutch leaders. He understood the treachery of the emperor so he advised his friends to prepare for armed struggles, but no one heeded. Philip sent Duke of Alba to invade and to act as regent . He executed thousands. William raised a German army to fight. He was defeated on land but won on the sea. With the support of the French, William invaded the region. Right then, the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day occurred. William could not cooperate with the French and disbanded his troops.
Alba then conquered many cities and laid massacre, killing indiscriminately,
even women and children. The successor of Alba was Requesens who sought a
separate peace with the Catholics of the southern provinces. The Spanish army
attacked the north. At the siege of
The Pacification of Ghent  reunited the people of the region and allowed
religious freedom. Yet King Philip continued to fight to conquer the low
countries. William was assassinated  but his son Maurice led and defeated
the Spanish invaders, leading to the final truce . The
church: The Belgic
Confession was approved by the national synod of the Dutch Reformed Church
† 14.5.1 Early Reformation
Calvinists: With the advent of Reformation, Protestantism gained
many adherents in
Francis I of
In the neighbouring
† 14.5.2 St. Bartholomew’s Day’s Massascre 
· Rounds of persecution: Francis I was succeeded by Henry II  who continued the persecution of Protestants. Then Francis II became king [1559–1560], followed by Charles IX [1560–1574], then followed by Henry III [1574–1589]. All 3 were sons of Catherine de Medici who held the real power and was the regent for a period.
reprieve: Catherine was in rivalry with the Guise family of
The Huguenot leaders were attending a royal wedding in Paris of Henry Bourbon,
14.5.3 Edict of
The Huguenots were not wiped out. They gathered in strongholds of
· Henry Bourbon: As Catherine’s sons had no successor, Henry Bourbon became the legal successor. Henry Bourbon had changed his religion 4 times out of political expediency. At this time, he was officially Protestant. The Guises could not tolerate a Protestant king and made up false documents to contest the throne. However, Henry of Guise was murdered  at the same place where he planned the St. Bartholomew’s Day’s massacre 16 years before.
· Change of religion: Henry III was killed  and the throne passed to Henry Bourbon as Henry IV [1589–1610]. The Catholics wanted to depose Henry IV so he changed his religion a 5th time and became officially a Catholic. He was probably a Protestant at heart.
of Nantes —Henry IV granted Huguenots freedom of worship,
 treasure our heritage
Our English Bible is a heritage from Tyndale who made the ultimate sacrifice for his work, being murdered as a martyr.
 appreciate God’s providence
God raised up many able generals to ensure the success of the Reformation, including Vasa, William the Silent and his son.
 avoid past errors
 apply our knowledge
Reformation came to those countries where the Bible was read and obeyed by the people. Today’s revival will be the same.
 follow past saints
scholarly Cranmer and Knox led the Reformation in
was the Reformation in
Henry VIII, the initiator the Reformation in
There were powerful and intelligent people in
o The intervention by Emperor Charles V was restrained by troubles on the continent.
o The reign of “bloody” Mary Tudor was short [1553–1558].
● What were the favourable conditions that led the Scandinavian countries follow Protestantism?
The Scandinavian countries were closer to the
influence of the Germans than
The massacre of
o Protestant Gustavus Vasa was an able military general and strategist.
were the factors that led to the eventual liberation of the
o Philip II’s and Alba’s murderous actions caused the rebellion.
o William of Orange was a tireless fighter, even if he lost many times.
The low lying
o Maurice, the successor of William, was an able military general.
● The Edict of St. Germain (1562, giving the Huguenots religious freedom) was followed by the massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day (1572). What lessons can we learn from this?
o The civil authority had its sole interests in its own retention of power. Those in power did not honour their own promises. They could not be fully trusted.
● Henry Bourbon (later Henry IV) changed his religion (between Catholic and Protestant) 5 times due to political expediency. How should we judge his actions?
o His apparent lack of loyalty was the result of a conflict between his religious conviction and political considerations. For example, if he had not changed for the 5th time, he could lose the throne and the country could be in continuous turmoil of religious wars. So his action was probably justified. It is a question of conviction (principle) vs. expediency. Only the person involved can say whether he believes that his action was from God.