ERA 4 << Medieval Church (2): Growth & Decline of Papacy (AD 1000–1500) >> SESSION 1
Reference: Gonzalez, volume 1, chapters 30-32
† 10.1.1 Beginning of the Crusades
Crusades were aimed at defeating the Muslims who threatened Constantinople,
saving the Byzantine Empire, reuniting Eastern and Western churches, and
 The Seljuk Turks, who had
replaced the Arabs as masters of eastern
· Beginning: The idea was Gregory VII’s. Then Urban II proclaimed at the Council of Clermont  that God wanted the crusades. He offered plenary indulgence to those who participated in the struggle. Others went further by promising eternal life to the participants, and not only to them but also to their parents and to all those who contributed to the efforts of the Crusaders. Earthly advantages promised to Crusaders were exemption from debt and freedom from taxation and payment of interest.
† 10.1.2 First Crusade [1096–1099]
before the crusade: A disorganized mob, under Peter the Hermit,
set out for
The crusaders and the Byzantines joined to capture Nicea,
† 10.1.3 Other Crusades
Crusade [1147–1149]—With the fall of
Crusade [1188–1192]—The Kingdom of Jerusalem was for a while very
strong, expending as far as
Crusade [1202–1204]—Pope Innocent III called a crusade to attack
Crusades: The Fifth
Crusade [1217–1221] attacked
† 10.1.4 The Spanish Reconquest
The ancient Visigoth
success: When the last of the great caliphs of Cordova died
, Muslim lands were divided into small kingdoms. The reconquista gained strength and
† 10.1.5 Consequences of the Crusade
· Enmity between religions: The obvious result was the increase in mistrust and enmity between Christians and Muslims, as well as between the Latin Christians and Byzantine Christians.
Byzantine Empire: The weakening of the
· Greater papal power: The crusades enhanced the power of the papacy as the popes were recognized as an international authority. But the channelling of the energies of nations into the crusades led to a rise of nationalism that eventually weakened the papacy.
· New military orders: The orders of Saint John of Jerusalem and the Templars, founded during the crusades, continued existing and holding enormous power.
The veneration of relics gained momentum as ancient relics flooded into Europe
against heresy: The crusading spirit was also used to combat
heresy. Pope Innocent III called a crusade  against the Albigensians in
· Rise of monarchy: Feudalism was weakened because many nobles and knights never returned from the crusades. Kings were able to centralize their control with the aid of the middle class, which favoured a strong centralized nation-state which would provide security for business.
· Rise of cities & middle class: The development of cities and an economy based on trade were gaining ground because of the large movement of people. Until then, the only important source of wealth was land, and therefore economic power was in the hands of the landowners—nobles and prelates. The development of trade contributed to the emergence of a new wealthy class—the middle class (French bourgeoisie), most of them merchants. They would become allies of the monarchy against the nobles; eventually, in the French Revolution, they would overcome both the crown and the nobility.
Muslim invasion of
† 10.2.1 Eastern church vs Western church
differences: Emperor Theodosius I put the administration of the
Eastern and Western areas of the empire under separate heads . The church
in the East was under the jurisdiction of the emperor but the pope in
· Intellectual differences: The intellectual outlook was also different between the two regions. The Greek East was more interested in solving theological problems along philosophical lines. The Latin West was more inclined to consider practical matters of polity and had little trouble formulating orthodox dogma.
· Practical differences: In the East, marriage of all parish clergy below the bishop was permitted; in the West, all clergy were not allowed to marry. The East used Greek; the West used Latin so sometimes there were misunderstandings. The priests in the East wore a beard; the priests in the West might shave his face and this sometimes caused disputes.
† 10.2.2 Schism of Photius
word inserted: In the Council of Toledo III , the public
confession of the Visigoth King Recared was read, turning from Arianism to
orthodox faith. The synod then rejected Arianism and affirmed the Nicene Creed,
o New Version: Credo in Spiritum Sanctum qui ex patre filioque procedit (“I believe in the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and the Son”). The original Nicene Creed said that the Holy Spirit proceeds “from the Father”—without the word filioque.
o “And” vs “through”: In 4th-c, Western Fathers Ambrose, Augustine, and Jerome all taught that the Holy Spirit “proceeds” from the Father and the Son, though subordinate to neither. The Athanasian Creed also supported this. In the East, the belief was and still is that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son.
Photius became the patriarch of
Later, when political circumstances changed in
† 10.2.3 East-West Schism
· Disagreements: In addition to the perception of the Eastern church that the Western church tampered the Nicene Creed and interfered into their ecclesiastical succession, there were other disagreements:  Celibacy—Leo of Ochrid, Bulgarian archbishop, accused the West of error because it made clerical celibacy a universal rule.  Unleavened bread—Patriarch Michael Cerularis [1043–1059] condemned the Western church because it celebrated communion with unleavened bread.
situation: The restoration of the empire under Charlemagne meant
that the popes no longer needed the support of the Byzantine Empire and were
not afraid to confront
Pope Leo IX sent an ambassador Cardinal Humbert to
· Final break: Humbert and Cerularis exchanged insults. On June 16, 1054, Cardinal Humbert appeared at the cathedral of St Sophia and excommunicated Cerularis as a heretic, as well as any who dared follow him. Cerularis responded by anathematize the pope and his followers. The schism was accomplished. The reconciliation has been difficult because the break was based on doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographical differences.
o The mutual excommunication was only removed on December 7, 1965 by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras.
† 10.2.4 Consequences of the Schism
· Ecumenism: Because of the bitterness of schism, the ecumenical movement in 20th-c was largely an initiative of the Protestants. The RCC and the Greek Orthodox Church gave little support.
· Separation: Separation shut the Eastern church from many of the vitalizing influences that strengthened the Western church, including socio-political movements (the rise of towns, nations, and the middle class) and cultural movements (Renaissance, and the Reformation).
· Stagnation of the East: The theological controversies and the shock of Islam left the Eastern church stagnant. Little change in ritual, polity, or theology has appeared in that church until the recent time. Consequently, it has not had the influence on the world that Christianity in the West has had.
† 10.3.1 After Innocent III
influence: For several decades after Innocent III, his successors
remained in the light of his prestige. Between 1254 and 1273,
· Monks became popes: Because of the high reputation of the Mendicant orders, popes were elected from their ranks. Innocent V  was the first Dominican pope; Nicholas V [1288–1292] was the first Franciscan pope, followed by another Franciscan Celestine V , although he abdicated after 6 months.
† 10.3.2 Boniface VIII [1294–1303]
of authority: His reign marked the
King Philip IV of
† 10.3.3 Babylonian Captivity [1309–1377]
· Benedict XI [1303–1304]—He tried to reconcile with Philip IV by offering concessions, and to maintain the dignity of the papacy. He was criticized from both sides.
V [1305–1314]—The pro-French party won and elected a French as pope. He was a weak man of doubtful
morality. During his entire reign, he stayed in
Captivity: Clement V began to reside in
· Council of Vienne [1311–1312]—The rich and powerful order of the Templars was an obstacle to Philip IV’s centralization policy. Philip accused them of heresy and forced Pope Clement V to suppress the order. The Templars in French were arrested, and under torture, some confessed to being a secret order against Christianity, practicing idolatry and sodomy. Clement then ordered all Templars arrested. He was then forced by Philip to call a council to judge the Templars. But the council insisted to hear the case anew. Not wishing to confront the council, Clement ordered the abolition of the order using an administrative decision of the pope and the council was dissolved. Philip took all the wealth of the order.
XXII [1316–1334]—The cardinals could not agree on the next pope
so for 2 years, there was no pope. They finally elected a 72-year old man but
he survived much longer than expected. He wanted to assert the power of the
XII [1334–1342]—He built a great palace in
XI [1370–1378]—At 17-year old, he was made cardinal by his uncle
Pope Clement VI [1342–1352]. At the time of his election as a pope, Catherine
of Siena came forth and called the pope to return to
o Early life: She joined the “Sisters of the Penance of St Dominic” when young. This was a flexible organization whose members lived at home but devoted to a life of penance and contemplation.
o Vision: She had a vision  in which Jesus joined her in mystical marriage, and ordered her to serve others. She began to spend most of her time helping the poor and the sick.
o Mysticism: She became famous as a teacher of mysticism—in the principles and practice of contemplation. She gathered a group of followers, men and women.
had another vision  and then set out on a campaign to have the papacy
o Doctor of the church: Pope Paul VI gave her the title of “doctor of the church”  which has been granted to only two women—Catherine of Siena and Teresa of Avila.
of this period:  As
the popes were tools of French policies, people in other countries saw the pope
as a foreign power whom they resented, particularly after the rise of
nationalism.  As vacancies in the
clergy would benefit the papacy (incomes would be sent to
† 10.4.1 Great Western schism [1378–1417]
· Early schism: After the clash between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV , rival popes continued to be appointed by the emperor until 1180. These 12 rival popes were called anti-popes by the RRC.
· Urban VI [1378–1389]:
Cardinals detained in
o Reform: Urban VI was determined to reform the church but he had bad temper and arrogant manner. He dealt harshly with absenteeism and simony. He planned to reduce the French influence by appointing Italian cardinals. Yet he continued to appoint his relatives to important positions.
· Two popes:
o Second pope: A large number of cardinals opposed Urban VI and gathered in Anagni. They declared that they had elected Urban VI under coercion. They elected a new pope Clement VII .
Various support: For the first time, there were two popes
elected by the same cardinals.
o Corruption: The schism encouraged simony as the rival popes needed funds to compete.
o Attempt to end: The church grew weary of the schism, and there were different attempts to end the schism but none successful.
· Papal taxation: With two papal courts to support, the papacy invented many ways to tax the people.
Income from papal estates—Besides the Papal States, the papacy owned lots of land in the
o Tithes—offering from the faithful
o Annates—the payment of the first year’s salary by church officials
o Right of purveyance—clergy and their constituents paying the travelling expenses of the visiting pope
o Right of spoil—personal property of the upper clergy going to the pope upon their death
o Peter’s Pence—annual payment by the laity in many lands
o Vacancy—vacant posts not requiring payment from the papacy
o Service fees—fees for clerical service
· Conciliar Movement:
o Definition: This movement claimed that the universal council had the highest authority in the church.
o History: In Roman times, the ecumenical councils were responsible to solve controversies. Later, as the popes gained power, the councils became instruments for their policies, e.g. the Council of Lateran IV. As the schism continued, many hoped that a universal or general council could solve the problem.
o Basis: The book Defensor Pacis  by Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun stressed that the church in a general council guided by the NT alone could proclaim dogmas and appoint its officials. Therefore, the highest authority belonged to the general council, representing the entire church, not the pope.
Calling of a council: The great obstacle at this point in time was the question of who had
authority to call a council. The difficulty was solved when the cardinals of
both parties issued a joint call to a general council to gather in
The council had the support of both colleges of cardinals, and most of the
Third pope again: Both reigning popes rejected the decision. When Alexander V died, the
cardinals elected John XXIII  who sought refuge with Emperor Sigismund of
of John XXIII: In 20th-c, there was another Pope John XXIII
[1958–1963]. The reason is that the RCC accepts only those popes residing in
o New council: Under the pressure of Emperor Sigismund, John XXIII called the council. Over 350 high officials of the church attended. The council declared its legality and its right to supreme authority in the Roman church.
Removal of 3 popes: John XXIII was forced to resign and the Roman pope Gregory XII
abdicated . The
o New pope: The cardinals elected Martin V [1417–1431] as new pope.
o Reforms: The council issued some general decrees against simony, pluralism, and absenteeism.
It ordered that similar councils should meet periodically to ensure that the reforms
would continue. The Council of Pavia  was called by Martin V according to
the plan; it was then moved to
· Council of Basel/Ferrara-Florence [1431–1445]:
Papal manipulation: The next council was called to meet in
The council was divided. Some followed the pope to
Conditions for reunion: The council at
o Papal despotism: The conciliar movement’s attempt to create a constitutional monarchy dissipated and the papacy reverted to papal despotism. In a papal bull Execrabilis , Pope Pius II condemned any appeals to future general councils. But the French clergy concurred with the French ruler in the proclamation of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges , which made the French church autonomous of the pope and under the state.
† 10.4.2 Political events that weakened the papacy
The change toward a monetary economy gave rise to the bourgeoisie
who wanted a strong centralized government which would protect trade, suppress
banditry, regulate coinage, and stop petty wars. They therefore supported the monarchy.
Countries with a central government had a sense of commonality over against
other countries. Even in
Years’ War [1337–1453]—During the war, the pope resided in
Cause: Edward III of
Joan of Arc
(1412–1431): She was a French girl who claimed of having visions of Saint
Catherine, Saint Margaret, and archangel Michael, who ordered her to lead the troops
to break the siege, and to crown the dauphin at
o French victories: The victory of Joan of Arc began a period of French victories. The last battle was the Battle of Castillon . At the end of the war, all English possessions on the continent were in French hands.
Death [1348–1350]—The Bubonic plague killed almost one third of
the people in
of Constantinople —Under the threat of the Turks, the
Byzantine emperors appealed for help from the West. The pope demanded the price
of ecclesiastical reconciliation which was achieved in the Council of
Ferrara-Florence . The patriarchs of
 treasure our heritage
The crusades in the East and the reconquista in the West saved Christianity from Muslim conquests.
 appreciate God’s providence
The church did not fall from numerous schisms.
 avoid past errors
Schisms were caused by political power struggles.
 apply our knowledge
The council representing the whole church is above the pope.
 follow past saints
Two women, Catherine of Siena and Joan of Arc, stood out above all the corrupt popes.
● How do we evaluate the Crusaders with respect to their influence on the church, on western civilization and society?
o caused enmity between Christians and Muslims (however, this is unavoidable)
o caused enmity between the Eastern and the Western churches
stopped Islamic invasion of
o enhanced power of popes
o impact on Christian piety
o creation of military monastic orders such as the Templars
o combat heresy
o economic changes: trade, cities, bourgeoisie
● What influences did the new monastic orders produce in the church?
o studies, universities
o emphasis in poverty
o training and preaching
● What were the causes of the Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism? What lessons can we learn from these unfortunate events?
Causes: The political interests, in this case
o Lessons: The church must not attach too closely with political powers. When power becomes the highest priority of the church, corruption follows.