ERA 4 << Medieval Church (2): Growth & Decline of Papacy (AD 1000–1500) >> SESSION 1
Reference: Gonzalez, volume 1, chapters 30-32
† 10.1.1 Beginning of the Crusades
Overview: Crusades were aimed at defeating
the Muslims, saving the Byzantine Empire, reuniting Eastern and Western
churches, and reconquering of the
· Beginning: Pope Urban II proclaimed that God wanted the crusades . He offered plenary indulgence to participants. Earthly advantages included exemption from debt and freedom from taxation.
† 10.1.2 First Crusade [1096–1099]
Success: The crusaders led by French nobles
and the Byzantines joined to capture Nicea,
† 10.1.3 Second to Ninth Crusades [1147–1272]
little success: The
Third Crusade was led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa,
and Richard the Lionhearted of England. They
got Saladin to agree to give pilgrims access to
† 10.1.4 The Spanish Reconquest
† 10.1.5 Consequences of the Crusade
was an increase in enmity between Christians and Muslims, also between the
Latin Christians and Byzantine Christians. The weakening of the
· Change in power: The crusades enhanced the power of the papacy as the popes were recognized as an international authority. But a rise of nationalism later eventually weakened the papacy. Feudalism was weakened because many nobles never returned, leading to the rise of monarchy. The growth of cities and trade were the result of the large movement of people. Trade led to the emergence of the middle class.
Muslim invasion of
† 10.2.1 Eastern church vs Western church
· Political differences: Emperors were almost popes in the East; popes were almost emperors in the West.
· Intellectual differences: The Greek East was more interested in solving theological problems along philosophical lines. The Latin West was more inclined to consider practical matters of polity.
· Practical differences: In the East, marriage of all parish clergy below the bishop was permitted; in the West, all clergy were not allowed to marry. The East used Greek; the West used Latin causing misunderstandings.
† 10.2.2 Schism of Photius
· One word inserted: The Council of Toledo III  inserted one word filioque (“and the Son”) into the Nicene Creed, meaning that the Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father and the Son”.
An ecclesiastical rebellion led to two patriarchs in
† 10.2.3 East-West Schism 
break: Pope Leo IX sent Cardinal Humbert to
† 10.2.4 Consequences of the Schism
· Stagnation of the East: Separation shut the Eastern church from many of the vitalizing influences that strengthened the Western church. Little change in ritual, polity, or theology has appeared in the Eastern church until the recent time. Consequently, it has had little influence on the world.
† 10.3.1 After Innocent III
Innocent III, his successors remained in the light of his prestige. Between
1254 and 1273,
† 10.3.2 Boniface VIII [1294–1303]
His reign marked the
Humiliation: King Philip IV of
† 10.3.3 Babylonian Captivity [1309–1377]
· Impact of this period: People in many countries saw the pope as a foreign power. The church was corrupted with simony, pluralism, absenteeism, and nepotism. All these contributed to a greater need for reforms.
† 10.4.1 Great Western schism [1378–1417]
· Two popes: The cardinals elected Urban VI, an Italian, as new pope. Later, the pro-French cardinals elected another pope, Clement VII. So there were two popes elected by the same cardinals.
· Council of Pisa [1409–1410]: The council deposed both popes and elected a new pope, Alexander V.
· Council of Constance [1414–1418]: This council deposed all 3 popes and elected Martin V as new pope.
of Basel/Ferrara-Florence [1431–1445]:
Pope Eugene IV wanted to stop the conciliar movement which held the council as
the supreme authority in the church. He was able to cause disagreement in the
council, one group meeting at
† 10.4.2 Political events that weakened the papacy
· Monarchy & nationalism: The strong monarchies became competitors against the papacy for the loyalty of their subjects. Nationalism undermined the papal claims to universal authority.
Years’ War [1337–1453]: During the war between
of Constantinople —The Byzantine emperors appealed for help from the West. The pope
was unsuccessful in convincing Christian nations to help, and
 treasure our heritage
The crusades saved Christianity from Muslim conquests.
 appreciate God’s providence
The church did not fall from numerous schisms.
 avoid past errors
Schisms were caused by political power struggles.
 apply our knowledge
The council representing the whole church is above the pope.
 follow past saints
Catherine of Siena and Joan of Arc stood out above corrupt popes.