a. The Big Bang Theory: The theory (proposed by Father George Le Maitre in the 1950s) describes the origin of the universe from a big explosion from some primordial nucleus of infinite density with a dimension of 10-35 cm (extremely small) and an extreme temperature of 1032 degrees Kelvin (incredibly high).
(1) Hubble observed the expanding universe in 1931. There is a red-shift in the spectrum of light from distant galaxies in all directions.
(2) Cosmic background microwave radiation was discovered in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson. It is the remnants of Big Bang.
(3) The extension of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity by Penrose and Hawking in 1970 proved that the origin of space-time is a singular point of infinite density.
► Based on existing evidences, it is quite certain that the universe came into being with a Big Bang.
C. Big Bang Theory vs. the Bible: The Big Bang theory does not conflict with the Bible.
► The Bible did not describe the mode of how the universe was formed. Gen 1:1 describes the fact of creation without mentioning any details while Gen 1:2 continues the description using a perspective from the earth.
► The Big Bang Theory supports a definite beginning of the universe and contradicts the belief that the universe was always there. It unavoidably leads to the concept of the First Cause (or God).
► The numerical accuracy of the force of the Big Bang helps to prove the intelligence of God and the impossibility of chance happening. Observations of cosmic background radiation in 1992 show that the evenness of the radiation is within 0.00003ºK in all directions. If the universe had expanded at a rate one millionth more slowly than it did, expansion would have stopped and the universe would have collapsed on itself before any stars had formed. If it had expanded faster, then no galaxies would have formed. Some describes this phenomenon as “no less than the handwriting of God” because the phenomenon demonstrates the amazing precision in the rate of the explosion.
► Establishing that the expansion of the universe from the creation event is governed by two factors, a mass density term plus space energy density term, means that both the mass density and the space energy density of the universe must be fine-tuned to an extremely high degree for the universe to have any capacity to support physical life. In fact, the value of the mass density term must be fine-tuned to better than one part in 1060, and the value of the space energy density term to better than one part in 10120. Atheist astronomers admit that: if there is no God, man is confronted with “a disturbing cosmic coincidence problem.”
► Thus the Big Bang theory actually helps in proving the existence of God. If Big Bang is not the work of God, it will be like a complete set of Encyclopaedia Britannica came into being after an explosion in a printing shop.
A. Conflict between science and the Bible:
► Attitudes of Christians towards apparent conflict of science and the Bible:
(1) No need to harmonize: Science and religion are two different spheres. The statements in science do not explain religion, and vice versa.
(2) Accept scientific data: The observations in science are objectively true. Therefore the Bible is to be interpreted in a way to fit scientific data. If the two cannot agree, then literal Biblical interpretation is rejected.
(3) Accept Biblical data: Scientific data may appear to be objectively true but God holds the key to ultimate reality. When there is an apparent conflict, scientific data are rejected or are interpreted in a way to fit the Bible.
(4) Harmonize: When all the facts are rightly understood, there is no real conflict between science and the Bible. We can accept data from both science and the Bible. When there is an apparent conflict, we can try to harmonize the two.
► There is only one truth. If both science and the Bible express truth, then there should not be any conflict.
► If there are conflict between religious beliefs and scientific beliefs, one set of beliefs tends to ultimately suppress the other. Unfortunately, it is usually one’s religious beliefs that are sacrificed. That is why we need a competent, responsible, coherent synthesis or harmonization of the two.
► The pioneers of science (such as Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Pascal) were devout Chrisitians. They did not see any fundamental conflict between science and religion.
B. Intelligent Design Theory:
► There is nothing in science that reject creation. Again, it is naturalism and scientism that deny supernatural creation.
► Propositions of cosmological evolutionism:
(1) Either matter is eternal or it has simply, of itself, come into being.
(2) The complex structure of the physical universe has evolved from the simple unorganized condition of primal matter.
► Currently no scientific finding disproves the existence of God, and there are many findings that raise the possibility of a God. The characteristics of the universe point to the fact that it could not have existed by chance, meaning that cosmological evolutionism is highly unlikely, in fact, practically impossible.
► Because the evidence of design is so clear that some proposed the Intelligent Design Theory. This theory holds that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by intelligent causes, not an undirected random process such as cosmological evolutionism and natural selection.
► There are two components to the theory:  anthropic principle and  complexity of biological features.
C. Anthropic Principle—fine-tuning in the universe:
► The anthropic principle states that the world and universe are “fine-tuned” to allow for life on Earth. If the conditions were altered slightly, many species would cease to exist.
► In 1989, a Christian astronomer Hugh Ross listed 16 characteristics of the universe and another 19 characteristics of the solar system that must be fine-tuned to make life possible and sustainable. By 2000, the list has been expanded to include 35 characteristics of the universe and another 122 characteristics of the solar system. The list still keeps growing.
► For example, there are four fundamental forces in the universe: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. Scientists discovered that every one of these forces must have just the right strength if there is to be any possibility of life. In reality, they are at exactly the right strength to allow life.
► The probability of satisfying all 122 characteristics is one chance in 10160 (1 followed by 160 zeros). It is estimated that there are 1022 planets in the universe. Therefore, the probability that all 122 characteristics are found on one planet is one chance in 10138 (10160 divided by 1022). This is pratically impossible. In comparison, there are only about 1070 atoms in the entire universe.
a. Age of the universe: Most scientists believe the universe was originated 15 billion years ago and the earth was formed 4.5 billion years ago.
B. Evidences of the antiquity (long history) of the earth:
(1) Geology:  The geologic column is built up by many layers of sedimentary rocks and each rock stratum containing different kinds of fossils.  The tallest mountains on Earth today are fold mountains that were formed from the slow mountain building process which we can still observe today.  Geologists believe that different continents were originated from a single supercontinent which were split by the continental drift that occurred between 60 and 200 million years ago.  Different ice ages were identified in past history of the Earth.
(2) Physics:  The age of rocks can be estimated by dating methods using radioactive elements and carbon 14.  The age of the Earth can be dated by other geological methods, such as salinity of oceans (presuming that the oceans started out with fresh water), the thickness of cosmic dust, etc.
● Based on radiometric method of dating, in particular using uranium, the age of the Earth is estimated to be 2 to 6 billion years. However, if other methods of dating are used, such as salinity of oceans, radioactive carbon 14, cosmic dust, sedimentary rocks, the results are very different, from a minimum of 10,000 years to a maximum of 100 million years.
(3) Astronomy:  The universe is expanding in all directions. The objects that astronomers can are 15-17 billions light-years away. These objects are rushing away from us at more than 90% of the speed of light. This is regarded as the limit of the known universe.  Some astronomical events happened in the past but its light only reached us in recent times. For example, an astronomer discovered a new supernova (exploding star) in 1987. But the event happened more than 160,000 years ago and its light only reached us after this long period.
C. Age of the universe according to the Bible:
► In the 1650s, Anglican archbishop James Ussher calculated from the genealogies of Genesis that the universe was created in 4004 BC (or about 6,000 years ago). His book Annuals of the World is the history of the world based on the Bible, describing the chronology from the Garden of Eden to the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70. He believed the exact date was October 23, which was the first Sunday (first day of the week) after Autumn Equinox because most ancient people, including the Jews, started their calendar at harvest time. [Today, autumn equinox is normally on September 21. This is because of historical calendar-juggling.]
● However, evidence from the Bible (eg. Lk 3:36 compared to Gen 11:12, Cainan missing) shows that Biblical genealogy may not be exhaustive as some generations may be skipped. In Jewish custom, “father” may mean “ancestor”, and “son” may mean “descendent”. Because of the likelihood of such gaps, the creation of Adam could be dated back to 10,000 or even 15,000 years ago.
● Dr. John Lightfoot (same time as Ussher) even said it was created at 9 am. John Urquhat (1902) dated creation in 8167 BC.
D. Different interpretations of creation:
(1) Creation with age:
● Days recorded in Gen 1 are literal days of 24 hours. God created all individual kinds of all living things. There is no evolution. Creation is dated at 6,000 to 10,000 years ago.
● The apparent antiquity was explained by creation with age, that is, God created different things with the appearance of age. For example, Adam was created probability not as a baby but as a young man. Many geological phenomena (such as sedimentary rocks and fossils) are then explained by the Great Flood (flood geologists). The theory says that many things in nature may appear very old but are in fact young.
● SUPPORT:  It is the literal interpretation of the Bible.  Adam and Eve were apparently created with age.  The word “day” in Hebrew normally means 24 hours.
● OPPOSITION:  If the sun was created on the 4th day, then there is no standard for time. Also there is a question about source of light on the first day.  The theory over-emphasizes the effect of the Flood. Also, there is no evidence of a world-wide flood.  Many natural phenomena cannot be explained by this theory, such as fossils.
(2) Gap Theory:
● Days in Gen 1 are 24-hour days. There is a large gap between Gen 1:1 and 1:2. Gen 1:1 describes the creation of the whole universe. But this first world was destroyed, probably by the work of Satan. Gen 1:2-2:4 describes a re-creation of the Earth 6,000 to 10,000 years ago. The “ancestors of man” were humanoids (but not man) in the first creation.
● SUPPORT:  It can explain most of the difficulties, such as the appearance of an old Earth and the formation of fossils.  Gen 1:2 describes the world “became” formless and void. Based on Isa 24:1; 45:18; Jer 4:23-26, that void was not created by God but was the result of divine judgment.  Hebrew word “bara” (meaning newly created) used only 4 times in Gen 1 (1,21,21,27) while the word “asa” (meaning made) was used in other occasions.
● OPPOSITION:  It implies the failure of the first creation.  There is no scientific evidence of a gap in the rocks.
(3) Day-Age Theory:
● Days in Gen 1 are long periods of time or epochs (maybe millions of years).
● The Hebrew word “yom” (day) has a broad range of meanings in the Bible. It can be translated as day, today, daily, or for ever:  24 hours (Ex 20:8-10);  relatively determinate period, could be short or long (Gen 41:1, years);  relatively indeterminate period (Gen 40:3; Pr 31:25), such as “day of my distress” (Gen 35:3).
● SUPPORT:  It does not violate hermeneutic principles because “day” has various meanings and can mean a long period of time (2Pe 3:8).  The use of “evening” (not “night”) and “morning” in Gen 1 may mean “This epoch had its gradual beginning and gradually merged into the epoch which followed” (according to Buswell).  The theory can explain most scientific evidences.
● OPPOSITION:  God does not need long periods of time for creation.  It is difficult to harmonize Ex 20:11 which says that “For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth.”  If the 6th day is very long, did Adam and Eve live through a long sixth day?
(4) Other Variations—with less support:
● Intermittent creationism: God’s creation work was done in six 24-hour days. But these days were separated by vast periods of time.
● Textual creationism: Gen 1:1 represents the entire creation which could have spanned billions of years. Starting from Gen 1:2 was God’preparation of the land for the first people around the Garden of Eden in six 24-hour days.
● Overlapping day-age theory: The first 6 days are overlapping, meaning that some activities could have overlapped, for example, some animals could have been created before the 5th day. The present age is the 7th day (the sabbath in Heb 4:9).
● Progressive creationism: God created prototypes of everything during long epochs and let them evolve in billions of years.
● Theistic evolutionism: Plants and animals develop through evolution which was guided by God. But this is very close to evolution without God.
● Days of revelation theory: God used 6 days to reveal His creation to Moses so the days were not linked to the time of creation. But this theory has no Biblical support.
E. Conclusion: Each of the 3 interpretations is supported by certain Biblical evidence and is accepted by large groups of evangelical theologians and Christian scientists. The first two interpretations (creation with age, gap theory) allow no possibility of evolution. However, there is no need to be dogmatic about which interpretation is the right one as this is not part of our essential belief.
Supplement to Q.13: Inadequacy of cosmological evolution (Brown: In the beginning)
► Evolutionary theories of the formation of the solar system are inadequate because:
(1) According to the theory, all planets should spin in the same direction, but Venus, Uranus, and Pluto rotate backwards.
(2) The orbits of the moons of all planets should all lie in the equatorial plane of the planet they orbit, but many, including our moon, are in highly inclined orbits.
► The rings of Saturn cannot be explained. They could not have formed from the disintegration of a former satellite or from the capture of external material; the particles in these rings are too small and too evenly distributed throughout orbits that are too circular. Therefore, the rings appear to be remnants of Saturn’s creation.
► Geological formations are almost always dated by their fossil content, especially by certain index fossils of extinct plants and animals. The age of the fossil is derived from the assumed evolutionary sequence, but the evolutionary sequence is based on the fossil record. This reasoning is circular. Furthermore, this procedure has produced many contradictory results.
► Practically nowhere on the earth can one find the so-called “geologic column”. In fact, on the continents, over half the “geologic periods” are usually missing, and only 15-20% of the earth has less than one-third of these periods. Even within the Grand Canyon, over 100 million years of this imaginary column are missing. Using the assumed geologic column to date fossils and rocks is fallacious.
Supplement to Q.13: Four fundamental forces
(1) Gravity is roughly 1039 times weaker than electromagnetism. If gravity had been 1033 times weaker than electromagnetism, “stars would be a billion times less massive and would burn a million times faster.”
(2) The nuclear weak force (transforming neutrons into protons and vice-versa in radioactive decay) is 1028 times the strength of gravity. Had the weak force been slightly weaker, all the hydrogen in the universe would have been turned to helium (making water impossible, for example).
(3) A stronger strong nuclear force (to hold together the subatomic particles of the nucleus) (by as little as 2%) would have prevented the formation of protons—yielding a universe without atoms. Decreasing it by 5% would have given us a universe without stars.
Supplement to Q.13: Anthropic constants
(4) If the difference in mass between a proton and a neutron were not exactly as it is—roughly twice the mass of an electron—then all neutrons would have become protons or vice versa. Say good-bye to chemistry as we know it—and to life.
(5) The very nature of water—so vital to life—is something of a mystery (a point noticed by one of the forerunners of anthropic reasoning in the 19th century, Harvard biologist Lawrence Henderson). Unique amongst the molecules, water is lighter in its solid than liquid form: Ice floats. If it did not, the oceans would freeze from the bottom up and Earth would now be covered with solid ice. This property in turn is traceable to the unique properties of the hydrogen atom.
(6) The synthesis of carbon—the vital core of all organic molecules—on a significant scale involves what scientists view as an astonishing coincidence in the ratio of the strong force to electromagnetism. This ratio makes it possible for carbon-12 to reach an excited state of exactly 7.65 MeV at the temperature typical of the centre of stars, which creates a resonance involving helium-4, beryllium-8, and carbon-12—allowing the necessary binding to take place during a tiny window of opportunity 10-17 seconds long.
(7) Any of the laws of physics can be described as a function of the velocity of light (now defined to be 299,792,458 meters per second). Even a slight variation in the speed of light would alter the other constants and preclude the possibility of life on Earth.
Supplement to Q.13: Characteristics of the Earth fine-tuned to allow for human inhabitation
(1) Stability of the sun:
► Our sun burns its fuel at an unusually constant and reliable rate.
► If the sun’s luminosity and Earth’s biomass and biodiversity fall out of sync by even a slight amount, the result would be either a runaway greenhouse effect or a runaway freeze.
(2) Distance from the sun:
► The distance from the sun determines the mean temperature of the atmosphere and the Earth. The pliable materials of which living tissue is composed are made up of chains of molecules which retain their physical characteristics within a comparatively narrow range of temperature variation. If the temperature becomes too cold, these chains become inflexible, and if the temperature becomes too high, they lose their bonds and disintegrate.
(3) Size of the Earth:
► The size of the Earth determines the constitution of its atmosphere, and the constitution of its atmosphere determines the nature of the living forms upon it. If it were much larger, it would have retained a large percentage of gases inimical to life. If it were much smaller, its gravitational forces would have been insufficient to retain virtually any atmosphere at all. The best comparative examples are Jupiter, a gaseous giant, and Mercury, a small planet with no appreciable atmosphere surrounding it, its gravitational field being too weak to retain nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.
(4) Rate of rotation:
► The rate of rotation of the Earth is just right for the continuous renewal of the atmosphere for animal life. Nothing gets too cold or too hot over most of its area, and plants have just sufficient times of light and of darkness to perform their function of regenerating the air (since the unique stability of carbon dioxide depends upon alternating light and darkness).
► If the rotation of the Earth took longer than 24 hours, temperature differences would be too great between night and day. If the rotation period were shorter, atmospheric wind velocities would be to great.
► The slowing down of Earth’s rotation rate means calmer wind velocities which in turn mean significantly less efficient sea-salt aerosol production. The result was the thinning of Earth’s cloud cover in the creation week.
(5) The existence of the satellite the Moon:
► The Moon is the largest satellite relative to the size of its parent body. From this point of view it is, in fact, huge. The moon has sufficient mass to cause tides, and tides are of great importance in keeping the oceans fresh.
► With the help from the moon, the land to sea surface ratio and the placement of continents yield tides strong enough to enrich the seashores and continental shelves with nutrients while cleansing them of pollutants, but not so strong as to devastate them.
► If the Moon-Earth gravitational interaction were greater than it currently is, tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe. If it were less, orbital changes would cause climatic instabilities. In either event, life on Earth would be impossible.
(6) Thickness of atmosphere:
► The rule of thumb in planetary formation is that the greater a planet’s surface gravity and the greater a planet’s distance from its star, the heavier and thicker its atmosphere. Theoretically, Earth should have an atmosphere heavier and thicker than that of Venus, but in fact it has a far lighter and much thinner atmosphere.
► If the atmosphere were less transparent, not enough solar radiation would reach the Earth’s surface. If it were more transparent we would be bombarded with far roo much solar radiation down here. (In addition to atmospheric transparency, the atmospheric composition of precise levels of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ozone are in proper proportions for life.
(7) Composition of atmosphere:
(a] Proportion of oxygen: On Earth, oxygen comprises 21% of the atmosphere. If oxygen were 25%, fires would erupt spontaneously, if it were 15%, human beings would suffocate.
(b] Carbon dioxide level: If the CO2 level were higher than it is now, a runaway greenhouse effect would develop (we’d all burn up). If the level were lower than it is now, plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis (we’d all suffocate).
(c] Water vapour levels: If water vapour levels in the atmosphere were greater than they are now, a runaway greenhouse effect would cause temperatures to rise too high for human life. If they were less, an insufficient greenhouse effect would make the Earth to cold to support human life.
(8) Ozone balances:
► After a long period ranging from thousands to millions of years, enough oxygen had diffused into the upper stratosphere to permit, under certain precise conditions, formation of a thin and delicate layer of ozone. The ozone layer offers essential life protection. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun. However, if there is too thick a stratosphere ozone, there will be too little ultraviolet radiation getting through the Earth’s surface, then plant growth is inhibited and certain vitamins will not form in certain animal species. Therefore, the ozone layer needs to be just right to not impair the Earth’s biomass, biodiversity, and biovitality. In addition, the stability of the ozone shield throughout history is another miracle.
(9) Atmospheric Discharge:
► If the atmospheric discharge (lightning) rate were greater, there would be too much fire destruction; if it were less there would be little nitrogen fixings in the soil.
(10) Movement of the Earth’s crust:
► Plate tectonics and volcanic activity cause the wrinkling of a planet’s surface. Compared with other planets, Earth experiences an extremely high level of both kinds of activity.
► Seismic activity: If there were more seismic activity, much more life would be lost; if there were less, nutrients on the ocean floors and in river runoff would not be cycled back to the continents through tectonic uplift. (yes, even earthquakes are necessary to sustain life as we know it).
● Continental Drift: The Genesis wording suggests that continental land began as a conglomerate, one mass in one locale, with the ocean surrounding it. In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift. About 150-300 million years ago, there was one huge supercontinent named by geologists Pangea. Later, this supercontinent was broken into 2 large pieces—Gondwanaland in the south and Laurasia in the north. The movement, as proposed by Arthur Holmes, was caused by convective currents within the Earth’s mantle which were driven by the radiogenic heat produced by radioactive minerals within the mantle. The large pieces were further broken into smaller pieces and drifted at about 1/2 inch per year to form different continents.
(11) The constitution of the Earth’s surface:
► If the thickness of the Earth’s crust were greater, too much oxygen would be transferred to the crust to support life. If it were thinner, volcanic and tectonic activity would make life impossible.
► The abundance of water on Earth makes life possible.
► The proportion of Earth’s surface area covered by land compared to oceans plays a crucial role in the development of life. This ratio determines the amount of biodiversity and biocomplexity possible on the planet. The current ratio of 29% land surface to 71% water surface has been theoretically and observationally demonstrated to provide the maximum possible diversity and complexity of life. If this ratio is different, the land may be dried out through insufficient precipitation or may be turned into a swamp through excess precipitation.
(12) Balance of carbonates:
► Plants had some help in removing carbon dioxide and water vapour from Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide easily reacts with atmospheric water to form carbonic acid. This carbonic acid reacts with the crustal rocks to form carbonates. If it were not for some mitigating factors from tectonic and volcanic activities, these carbonates would have leached enough carbon dioxide and water from the atmosphere to turn this planet into a permanently frozen, arid wasteland.
(13) A stable water cycle:
► Advanced life can survive only if the evaporation and precipitation average between 25 and 60 liquid water inches per year, and only if snow and rain condense in the right proportions. A water that meets exacting requirements demands intricate balancing of multiple factors: the physical characteristics of the sun and Earth; atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure; wind velocities.
(14) Comet influx:
► Earth’s gravitational pull is not quite strong enough to hold onto all of Earth’s atmospheric water indefinitely. An independent phenomenon largely unknown until the 1980s and unproven until the late 1990s replaces the lost water in just the right quantity to maintain the balance life demands. This phenomenon is an ongoing influx of water-rich extraterrestrial material in the form of comets. The comet influx rate changed with time but it must have been accurately compensating throughout the Earth’s history.
(15) Seasonal variations:
► The seasonal variations which take place throughout the year, due to the 23.5° axial tilt of the Earth, are very important for the continuance of human life. Were it not for these changes, microorganisms which cause diseases and which are favored by certain environmental conditions, would multiply so extensively that the human race might very well suffer extinction because of them.
(16) Combination of optimal conditions:
► Even if the universe contains as many as 10 billion trillion (1022) planets, we would not expect even one, by natural processes alone, to end up with the surface gravity, surface temperature, atmospheric composition, atmospheric pressure, crustal iron abundance, tectonics, vulcanism, rotation rate, rate of decline in rotation rate, and stable rotation axis tilt necessary for the support of life.
Supplement to Q.14: Geologic dating (Milton)
§ Many dating methods arrive at a date of 4.5 billions years. But dating methods are generally unreliable. In addition, different methods arrive at different conclusions. Some methods conclude that the Earth could be as young as 10,000 years.
§ Dating accurately requires:
(a) the process remains constant
(b) the starting value of the clock is known
(c) external factors cannot interfere with the process while it is carrying on
► Because these conditions are in general not met, the conclusions by the following methods are not precise.
Methods of Geologic Dating:
(1) Salinity of oceans:
► Presently, the rate of erosion of the land by rainfall in the world is surprisingly constant. Each year, 540 million tons of salt (5.4 X 108 tons) enter the oceans.
► Total amount of salt in all oceans is 5X1016 tons, so the estimated age is 100 million years.
(1) We cannot be sure that the annual run-off of dissolved salt has always been constant in the past.
(2) We cannot be sure that there was zero salt in the sea to begin with.
(3) Large amounts of salt are re-circulated into the atmosphere; recent evidence suggests that the salt in the sea might actually be in a steady state.
(2) Uranium-lead method:
► These methods are not accurate because:
(1) Uranium-lead method: uranium 238, enriched ore may cause spontaneous nuclear burning speeding up the process of decay, abundance of neutrino particles caused by cosmic radiation may also speed up the process; thus the estimate is not accurate.
(2) Radiogenic lead (lead 206 and lead 207 and lead 208) may not be zero at the beginning.
(3) Uranium oxide is highly soluble and may be moved away from its original deposit by ground water.
(3) Radiogenic helium:
► Almost the entire amount of helium in the earth’s atmosphere is believed to be radiogenic helium, formed during the decay process after the Big Bang.
► If the earth were 4.6 billion years old, there would be about 10,000 billion tons of radiogenic helium 4 in the atmosphere. Actually, there is only around 3.5 billion tons (0.035% of expected). Some geologists have attempted to explain this discrepancy by assuming that 99.96% has escape from the earth’s gravitational field into space; but this process has not been observed. Using the above amount, the age for the earth is around 175,000 years.
(4) Other radioactive elements:
► The changes of potassium to argon and of rubidium to strontium are plagued with the same problems as above. The methods are therefore not accurate.
(5) Cosmic dust:
► Cosmic dust particles an micrometeorites (chemically distinct from rocks on earth) enter the earth’s atmosphere from space and settle on the surface: 14 million tons a year
► If the earth if 4.5 billion years old, there would be a layer of 180-feet thick. The present amount gives an age of as little as 9,000 years, possibly up to 100,000 years.
(6) Astronomical studies:
► Halley’s comet is estimated to be 6,000 years old.
(7) Decay of earth’s magnetic field:
► The half-life is 1,400 years. The estimated age of earth is 10,000 years.
(8) Radioactive carbon 14:
► The half life of C14 is 5,700 years. However, the equilibrium in the production and decay of carbon 14 may not be maintained in detail.
► The age of the atmosphere after adjustment is 10,000 years.
(9) Continental drift:
► It could have occurred as recently as 10,000 years.
► Uniformitarians have dated its occurrence to 250 million years ago (or at least 60 million years ago).
(10) Sedimentary rocks:
► The present rate of deposition is about 0.2 mm per year. If the erosion has been constant, the sediments that are now on the ocean floor would have accumulated in 30 million years.
● There is no sediment known to be forming on the modern sea-bottom which compares with the composition of historical chalk. It would require sudden and cataclysmic changes in the temperature and acid-alkaline balance of huge areas of chemically saturated sea water. Sediments appear to be laid down not gradually but as a result of violent flood conditions. [catastrophism: the occurrence of “graveyards” of millions of land-dwelling (not marine) creatures who suffered death simultaneously]
Supplement to Q.14: Skipped generations in genealogies (Pao)
(1) One missing generation (Cainan) between Arphaxad and Shelah. (Gen 11:12; Lk 3:35-36)
● When Arphaxad had lived 35 years, he became the father of Shelah. (Gen 11:12)
● the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech (Lk 3:36)
(2) In Matthew’s record, 3 generations of kings of Judah (Joash, Amaziah, Azariah) were omitted. (Mt 1:8-9: 2Ki 8:16,25; 12:1; 14:1; 15:1,7; 1Ch 3:10-12) [Note: Uzziah=Ahaziah]
● Asa the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Jehoram, Jehoram the father of Uzziah, Uzziah the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah. (Mt 1:8-9)
● In the fifth year of Joram son of Ahab king of Israel, when Jehoshaphat was king of Judah, Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat began his reign as king of Judah. (2Ki 8:16)
● In the twelfth year of Joram son of Ahab king of Israel, Ahaziah son of Jehoram king of Judah began to reign. (2Ki 8:25)
● In the seventh year of Jehu, Joash became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem forty years. (2Ki 12:1)
● In the second year of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel, Amaziah son of Joash king of Judah began to reign. (2Ki 14:1)
● In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Azariah son of Amaziah king of Judah began to reign….Azariah rested with his fathers and was buried near them in the City of David. And Jotham his son succeeded him as king. (2Ki 15:1,7)
● Solomon's son was Rehoboam, Abijah his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, Jehoram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son. (1Ch 3:10-12)
(3) 6 generations in Aaron’s genealogy were missing from Ezra. (1Ch 6:3-14; Ezra 7:1-5)
● 3 The children of Amram: Aaron, Moses and Miriam. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 4 Eleazar was the father of Phinehas, Phinehas the father of Abishua, 5 Abishua the father of Bukki, Bukki the father of Uzzi, 6 Uzzi the father of Zerahiah, Zerahiah the father of Meraioth, 7 Meraioth the father of Amariah, Amariah the father of Ahitub, 8 Ahitub the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Ahimaaz, 9 Ahimaaz the father of Azariah, Azariah the father of Johanan, 10 Johanan the father of Azariah (it was he who served as priest in the temple Solomon built in Jerusalem), 11 Azariah the father of Amariah, Amariah the father of Ahitub, 12 Ahitub the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Shallum, 13 Shallum the father of Hilkiah, Hilkiah the father of Azariah, 14 Azariah the father of Seraiah, and Seraiah the father of Jehozadak. (1Ch 6:3-14)
● 1 After these things, during the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah, 2 the son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub, 3 the son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth, 4 the son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki, 5 the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the chief priest (Ezra 7:1-5)
(4) According to Levi’s genealogy, the ancesters of Moses were Levi (lived 137 years), followed by Kohath (lived 133 years), followed by Amram (lived 137 years), followed by Aaron and Moses. The total life spans for all 3 ancestors oh Moses was 407 years. The Israelites moved to Egypt during the life time of Levi. Then, Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt when he was 80 years old. Yet, the Bible recorded that the Israelites lived in Egypt for 430 years. Therefore, some generations between Levi and Moses must have skipped. (Ex 6:16-24; 7:7; 12:40)
● 16 These were the names of the sons of Levi according to their records: Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Levi lived 137 years. 17 The sons of Gershon, by clans, were Libni and Shimei. 18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Kohath lived 133 years. 19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi according to their records. 20 Amram married his father's sister Jochebed, who bore him Aaron and Moses. Amram lived 137 years. 21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg and Zicri. 22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan and Sithri. 23 Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans. (Ex 6:16-24)
● Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty-three when they spoke to Pharaoh. (Ex 7:7)
● Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt was 430 years. (Ex 12:40)
(5) The grandfather of Moses (Kohath) was recorded to have 8,600 sons, 2750 of them being 30-35 yrs of age. This is quite impossible so most likely some generations were skipped. (Nu 3:19,27-28; 4:34-37)
● The Kohathite clans: Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel….To Kohath belonged the clans of the Amramites, Izharites, Hebronites and Uzzielites; these were the Kohathite clans. The number of all the males a month old or more was 8,600. The Kohathites were responsible for the care of the sanctuary. (Nu 3:19,27-28)
● Moses, Aaron and the leaders of the community counted the Kohathites by their clans and families. All the men from thirty to fifty years of age who came to serve in the work in the Tent of Meeting, counted by clans, were 2,750. (Nu 4:34-37)
Supplement to Q.14: Very long 6th day (Copan)
(1) Gen 1:26-28 indicates that both man and woman were created on this day, that they had some time to get acquainted.
(2) Gen 2 records that God told Adam about which trees he could eat from and which one tree he could not eat from (2:16-17). Then Adam gave names to all the animals and birds (2:20). There were thousands of species that Adam needed to give names.
(3) Adam presumably noticed the social and mating habits of the animals in order to recognize that he himself had no equal (2:20). Then God put Adam to sleep and created Eve.
(4) When Eve arrived on the scene, Adam cried out, “At last!” (2:23). The word indicates a significant passing of time.
§ The conclusion is that the 6th day is too long for 24 hours.
Supplement to Q.14: Summary of the 3 interpretations of creation timing
Creation with age theory
24-hour days, creation 6,000 to 10,000 years ago; Great Flood as a major factor (flood geology – use the Flood to explain geological facts)
24-hour days, original world corrupted by sin from Satan; a large gap between Gen 1:1 and 1:2; Gen 1:2—2:4 describes re-creation
days equivalent to epochs of very long periods, creation billion years ago; Gen 1:1 creation of universe included sun and moon; 1:2 view from perspective of the Earth
· Adam was created already as a young man
· evidence for the coexistence of man & dinosaurs in Texas (disproved in 1970)
· lack of accuracy of dating (dating methods not trusted)
· evidences of catastrophism (not uniformitarianism) in the past, geologic changes could happen in a short time
· Sabbath day (Ex 20:9-11) imitates 7th day in creation.
· repeated mention of “evening and morning”
· Gen 1:2; 2:7 the word “was” (Heb. haya) should be translated as “became”
· Is 45:18 “empty” same word as “empty” in Gen 1:2 (Heb. tohu, bohu); Is 34:11; Jer 4:23 words “chaos”, “desolation”, “formless”, “empty” all relate to judgment; possibly the result of corruption of the original world
· 1:21,27 word “created” (bara) only for animals & man, others words mean “made” (asa, indicating renewal)
· 1:28 “replenish”= fill over again
· prima facie (Latin, at first sight) view: 1:1—2:4 only describe chronological order
· Ps 90:4, 2Pe 3:8 — 1000 years=1 day, God’s time scale
· “yom” can mean a period of time
· “evening” (not night) and morning can mean: This epoch had its gradual beginning and gradually merged into the epoch which followed
· present time possibly still in the 7th day (Ps 95:11, “my rest”; Heb 4:9, God’s Sabbath is still coming)
· can accommodate theistic evolution
· cannot explain fossils (due to flood? otherwise, God’s deception?)
· no evidence of worldwide flood
· deny all dating methods
· no 24-hour days before the sun was created
· Were there humans in the first creation (although none of pre-Adam fossils are human)? If not, why was man not part of the first universe?
· too much emphasis was put on the word “made”
· Is long time needed? Was man created separately?
· What about Adam, did he live a long time in the 6th day?
· The plants were created on the 3rd day and the sun on the 4th day. If the 3rd day is long, all plants would die.