a. A chief proponent of evolution Julian Huxley describes 3 phases of evolution: inorganic (cosmological), organic (biological), human (psycho-social) evolution. Today, for most people, the word evolution refers to bilogical evolution.
b. Major propositions of biological evolution hypothesis (Charles Darwin): (1) Living material has evolved from non-living matter. (2) All living things (including man) have evolved from the simplest living things through beneficial mutation of inheritable genes. (3) Evolution took place by means of the random operation of existing natural forces (natural selection or survival of the fittest).
c. It should be remembered that evolution theory is only a hypothesis. There are no empirical data to prove its scientific validity. Even after almost 150 years after Darwin’s proposal, and after numerous attempts by evolutionists to find good supporting scientific evidence, still no such evidence is found.
§ The evolution hypothesis uses 4 areas of scientific evidences to support their arguments.
(1) Argument from microevolution:
► Species may change the appearance over time, though not by much. In addition, there is gradual adaptation, such as greater resistance in bacteria as a result of antibiotics, colour variations in moths for camouflage. But both types of small-scale changes result in new varieties of same species, not new species. These changes are called “microevolution”. There is not a single evidence of any macroevolution [large-scale changes that would produce new body plans, organs or biochemical systems] bringing the formation of a new species.
► Simple bacteria can produce another generation in a matter of minutes. Yet, throughout 150 years of the science of bacteriology, there is no evidence that one species of bacteria has changed into another. None has been observed.
(2) Argument from similarity:
► Similarities between species can derive from biological ancestry. But they can also result from the necessities of intelligent design of a common designer, just like a painter will paint different pictures with the same style.
► There is strong resemblance among all living things: the same 20 amino acids occur throughout life on Earth, and the same 5 bases comprise all DNA molecules. Yet, in reality, their differences are greater than their similarities.
(3) Argument from fossils:
► Fossil record is said to display increasing complexity of life as one moves up from bottom to top of the geologic column. However, this is an oversimplification. In fact, there are gaps in the fossils and no transitional forms between the various species.
► Some claim the discovery of skeleton of “ancestors” of man but they are now found to be different species from human beings. Some of the “discoveries” (previously claimed to be ancestors of man) have been found to be forgeries.
(4) Argument from anatomy:
► In 1925, an evolutionist zoologist stated: “There are no less than 180 vestigial structures in the human body.” Vestigial (meaning trace) organs are described as relics from our animal past no longer serving any significant purpose. Today, the list of 180 vestigial structures is practically down to zero because scientists have found previously unknown functions for all of them.
§ Conclusion: All these arguments are found to be unreliable. None of the arguments can be used to prove evolution in a definitive way.
(1) Evidence from Genetics: (Mutations are ALWAYS bad.)
(2) Evidence from Origins Science: (The evolution of life from chemicals is impossible.)
(3) Evidence from Specified Complexity: (Random process can never produced specified complex patterns.)
(4) Evidence from Biochemistry: (Biochemical systems do not allow step-by-step evolution.)
(5) Evidence from Fossils: (Missing links are ALL still missing.)
(6) Evidence from Taxonomy: (There are NO living intermediates between groups.)
(7) Evidence from Molecular Biology: (Molecular biology demonstrates the large GAPS between species.)
(8) Issue of Natural Selection: (Explanation using natural selection has been abandoned.)
(9) Question of Proportional Population: (There are insufficient population of lower species.)
(10) Insufficient time: (Earth’s history is too short for evolution.)
§ Conclusion: These evidences convincingly prove that evolution is close to impossible.
a. Does the evolution hypothesis conflict with Christianity?
► There are some possible problems if evolution is true: (1) There is no need for a God to explain the existence of the world. (2) The Bible is inaccurate because it did not describe evolution. (3) Man is not special and is no different from lower animals.
b. No direct conflict: Actually, the evolution hypothesis has no direct conflict with Christian beliefs. Evolution, even if proved to be correct, can be harmonized with the Bible. For example, evolution can be regarded as the process used by God to create different species. That is why some theologians believe in the theory of theistic evolution.
c. Rejecting evolution: There are many objective reasons for rejecting the hypothesis. Even a truthful non-Christian scientist will admit that there are a lot more evidences that reject the evolution hypothesis than support it. Moreover, evolutionists use the hypothesis to reject God. Evolution is therefore effectively an enabler of atheism.
D. Possible Christian Position: (1) Micro-evolution (no conflict with the Bible) exists but not macro-evolution. (2) Fossil records do not contradict the Bible as there is a similar sequence in Genesis. (3) Evolutionists have no credible alternative and insist on evolution not because of the evidence, but despite the evidence. Evolution, at best, is a disputed theory that should always be regarded as a hypothesis until it can be proved by evidence.